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Cultivating the MassesModern State Practices and Soviet Socialism, 1914-1939$
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David L. Hoffmann

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780801446290

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801446290.001.0001

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Social Welfare

Social Welfare

(p.17) 1 Social Welfare
Cultivating the Masses

David L. Hoffmann

Cornell University Press

This chapter examines the rise of social welfare policies in Russia and the Soviet Union, with particular emphasis on the new forms of social science knowledge that led reformers to reconceptualize the population as a social entity to be rationally managed. It first traces the origins of social welfare concerns and policies more generally, focusing on cameralism in early modern Europe and developments in the social sciences in the nineteenth century. It then considers the link between welfare and warfare, along with the factors that shaped the Soviet welfare state. It also explains how the rise of mass warfare influenced state leaders to intervene more actively in the newly constituted social realm before concluding with a discussion of the ways that Soviet state interventionist practices addressed the “social question” that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe.

Keywords:   social welfare, Russia, Soviet Union, cameralism, Europe, social sciences, welfare state, mass warfare, state interventionist practices, social question

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