Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Contagious CityThe Politics of Public Health in Early Philadelphia$

Simon Finger

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780801448935

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801448935.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM Cornell University Press SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.cornell.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Cornell University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in Cornell for personal use (for details see www.cornell.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy/privacy-policy-and-legal-notice). Subscriber: null; date: 23 October 2018

(p.219) Index

(p.219) Index

Source:
The Contagious City
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
abolitionism, 106
Academy of Medicine, 126–27
Acadians, 52–56
in Nova Scotia, 52–53
in Philadelphia, 53
See also Catholicism
Adams, John, 90, 92–94
Adams, John Quincy, 144
African Americans
and climatism, 82
leaders, 129
and social status, 40, 105–6, 129–30
and yellow fever, 129–30
and climate, 15–16, 108–9, 157–58
and colonization, 22–23, 32
and commerce, 1–3, 32, 158–59
ideological interpretations of, 14–16, 159–60
improvements within, 158–60
air. See atmosphere
alcohol, regulation of, 111–12, 118, 125
Allen, Richard, 129–30
almanacs. See books
almshouses, 59, 61, 62, 64
See also hospitals
American Philosophical Society, 59, 78
Annapolis, 19
Anne, Queen, 34
anticontagionism, 125–27, 144–45, 149–51, 156
Appleby, Joyce, 160
appointments controversy, 41–48
architecture
of hospitals, 59, 69–70, 79, 96
of households, 73–74, 107–8
military, 89–90, 93, 102
Assembly, Pennsylvania, 39–56, 67, 73, 101, 119, 122, 147–48
association, 57–58, 61, 73, 75, 110, 133
and education, 82–83 atmosphere
of cities, 8–9, 19, 70, 108–9
and forests, 12–16
and health, 3–4, 10–12
of ships, 35–36, 144–46
Bache, Sarah Franklin, 133
“Barbados Distemper.” See yellow fever
Bard, Samuel, 88
Barlow, Joel, 103–4
Barton, Benjamin Smith, 153
Bartram, John, 77
Bartram, Moses, 113
baths and bathing, 91, 111
See also cleanliness
Bellers, John, 63
Bethel, Slingsby, 24
Blackwell, John, 27
bloodletting, 131
Bloomfield, Joseph, 137, 143
Board of Health (New York), 136–37
Board of Health (Philadelphia), 126–28, 130, 136, 138, 144, 146, 147, 150–51
Boate, Gerald, 14
body, 5–6
American contrasted with British, 81–82
and climate, 15, 81–82, 105–6, 110, 157–58
and fear, 130–31
nervous sensibility of, 104–5, 157
Boerhaave, Herman, 79, 126
Bond, Thomas, 59–60, 76, 78, 91, 105
(p.220) books
Adam out of Eden (Speed), 16
Airs, Waters, Places (Hippocrates), 70
almanacs, 113
Columbiad (Barlow), 103–4
A Discovery of Infinite Treasure (Plattes), 16
Domestic Medicine (Buchan), 112
Frame of Government (Penn), 26
Fumifugium (Evelyn), 8–9
Information and Direction to Such Persons as Are Inclined to the Province of Pennsylvania in America (Penn), 27
manuals, medical, 112–14
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 158
Roderick Random (Smollet), 36
Short Account of Yellow Fever (Carey), 130
Sylva (Evelyn), 9
Boston, 36, 91, 93, 110, 147, 150, 160
botany, 77–78
Bouquet, Henry, 51
Bristol, 37
Britain
colonial attitude toward, 6, 40, 81–85, 105
and imperial interests, 24–25, 34, 40
medical education in, 77–81
Brocklesby, Richard, 87
Brown, Charles Brocken, 132, 158–59
Brysell, Joseph, 148
Buchan, William, 112–13
Buckhuis, Phillip, 109
Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc de, 157–58
Burlington, New Jersey, 58, 143–44, 150
embargo, 137–38
Bush Hill, 124–25
butchers, regulation of, 29–31, 71–72, 109–10
Caldwell, Charles, 125, 127, 145, 149, 156–57, 161
Calvert family (Lords Baltimore), 26, 38
camps, military, 89–90
Canny, Nicholas, 14
Carey, Matthew, 124, 128, 130–31, 150
Caribbean. See West Indies
Carolina, 25–26, 28, 79
See also Charles Town
Catholicism
and Maryland grant, 26
opposition to, 25, 38, 40, 52, 150, 158
“cave dwellers,” 29–31
Chadwick, Edwin, x
Chambers, Benjamin, 27
charitable organizations, 61–66, 107, 150
Charles II, 8
Charles Town, 11–12, 52
compared with Philadelphia, 28–29, 32
charters
Maryland, 26
Pennsylvania, 8, 26–28
Philadelphia, 31, 43, 45, 109
Chinese Exclusion Act (1891), 151
Chovet, Abraham, 107
Church, Benjamin, 96, 98
circulation, 70, 74
cities, by name
Boston, 36, 91, 93, 110, 147, 150, 160
Bristol, 37
Burlington, 58, 137–38, 143–44, 150
Charles Town, 11–12, 28–29, 32, 52
Edinburgh, 79, 83–84, 125–27
Jamestown, 11, 15, 22
London, 7–9, 17, 19, 22–23, 32, 35, 43, 58, 61, 77–83, 99, 162
New Orleans, 114, 162
New York, 9, 34, 36, 70, 101, 136–37, 142–43, 146, 150, 153, 160
cities, criticism of, 8–9, 17–19
city planning, 1–3, 7–9, 17–19, 27–28, 57, 154
civilization, 9, 14, 106, 114, 155, 159, 161–62
Clark, William, 153
Clarkson, Mathew, 124
Clifton, Francis, 70
climate
American described, 10–11, 13–16
as cause of disease, 10–11, 15, 77–78, 82, 105, 121, 125, 157–58
as cause of human difference, 15, 81–82, 105–6, 110, 157–58
efforts to alter, 14–16, 21, 108–9, 158–59
See also meteorology
Cobbett, William, 142–43
Cochran, John, 99–100
coffee, 67
Colder, Cadwallader, 77
College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 110–13, 116, 118
and quarantine, 145
and yellow fever, 121–22, 124–30, 132
Collinson, Peter, 77
colonists, recruitment of, 21–22, 25
commerce, 3, 12, 29–32, 50, 73, 77
and agriculture, 1–3, 32, 158–59
criticism of, 161–62
and health, 7–8, 28–29
and morality, 8, 57–59, 160–61
and Pennsylvania plan, 7–8, 12
and quarantine, 54–55, 120, 136–40, 145–49
Common Council, 31, 70–73, 109–10, 151
Congress, Continental, 88, 91, 95–98, 100
Congress, U.S., 135, 139–43, 151
(p.221) Constitutions, 3–6
American body, 81–82
atmospheric or “epidemic,” 3, 10–11, 13
corporeal, 11
Pennsylvania (1776), 111
political, 28, 43, 112
of the United States, 139
consumer culture, 73–75
contagion, 54, 95, 97, 104, 154, 156, 158
propaganda, 97
and yellow fever, 122–28, 131, 156
Continental Army, 86, 89–90, 92–95, 107
Cooper, Anthony Ashley, 9, 17
creolization, 81, 104
Crèvecoeur, Hector St. John de, 159
“criolian degeneracy,” x, 14–15, 26–27
Crispin, William, 10
crowding, 4
in hospitals, 69
in military hospitals, 97
in postwar city, 108
regulation of, 56
in ships, 54
Cullen, William, 79, 126–27
cultivation, 13, 15, 17, 158–59
Currie, William, 114, 125–26, 154, 158
Cutler, Manasseh, 114–15, 117
Defoe, Daniel, 23, 70
Delaware (state), 146–48
Delaware River, 3, 9, 17, 20, 27, 29, 39, 146
demography, 21–24
Dennie, Joseph, 158
density, 29–31
See also crowding
Deveze, Jean, 125, 132
“Devil’s Year” (1665–1666). See London
discipline, x
medical, 99, 102, 107, 111, 118
military, 87, 89, 91–92, 95, 97 disease
causes of, 10, 13–16, 69–70, 78, 131
in cities, 3, 31, 154
fear of, 120–21, 128, 130–34, 139
and immigrants, 34–36, 38, 62, 122
prevention of, 37
shipborne, 33, 36, 42
treatment of, 106, 110, 126
in war camps, 86, 88–96
Dispensary, Philadelphia, 104, 114–18, 128
dispersion. See density
Dock Creek, 3, 70, 73
doctors. See physicians
Douglas, William, 93–94
doux-commerce, 59
drainage
and climate, 14
of fens, 13–14
as health policy, 14, 129
Duffield, Benjamin, 101, 123
Duffield, Samuel, 131, 142, 144
Dyer, John, 109–10
Easton, Pennsylvania, 51
Eburne, Richard, 15
Edinburgh, 79, 83–84, 125–27
American students in, 79, 83–84
medical faculty of, 79 education
and African Americans, 106, 130
medical, 78–85, 87–88
public, 104, 114
reforms, 78–81
elections, violence in, 49–52
encampments, military, 89–93
English Civil War, 8–9, 17–19, 22–25
environment
American and English compared, 13–14, 104–6, 157–58
Evelyn, John, 8–9, 15–17, 155
exclusion, 36–37, 43, 56, 64
Falconer, Nathaniel, 101, 122
Federalists, 121
fertility, 23, 74
fevers, 126
See also yellow fever
Finlay,Carlos, 125
fire, 9, 23, 31, 32, 57, 74, 107
Fisher’sIsland, 48
Fliegelman, Jay, 112
Fogleman, Aaron, 54
Fothergill, John, 59, 66–67, 76–84, 99, 115
forests
in America, 13–16
attitudes toward, 13, 15–16
as cause of disease and vice, 13–16
clearing of, 15, 108
as determinant of climate, 13
in England, 13–14
in Pennsylvania, 13, 25
See also wilderness
France, 34, 38, 40, 51–53, 122, 153
Franklin, Benjamin, 51, 74, 108, 111
anti-Palatine rhetoric of, 51
and civic improvement/associationism, 58–59
interest in population, 74–75
and Pennsylvania Hospital, 59–60, 62–66, 69–70
See also Quaker Party
(p.222) Free Traders, Society of, 29
Freneau, Philip, 103, 125
Furly, Benjamin, 24
Gage, Thomas, 98
Galen, 10, 19, 22, 36, 77, 105
Gallatin, Albert, 139
gardens and gardening, 77–78, 108
See also parks
Gates, Horatio, 88, 97
Genêt, Edmond Charles, 121
Gentleman’s Magazine, 78
georgic ideology, 13–15, 26–27, 159
Germans
assimilation of, 35, 39
and British society, 34–35
calls for lazaretto by, 42, 46–47
Germantown, 32
hostility to, 34–35, 38, 40, 47
illness among, 35–38, 54–56
migration of, 24, 33–34, 37–38, 54–56
political involvement of, 39, 45–52
religious divisions among, 41, 49–51
Giles, William, 139
Glorious Revolution, 24
Graeme, Thomas, 42–44, 47–48, 50, 51
Graunt, John, 8, 23
Griffitts, Samuel Powell, 115
Haiti. See Saint Domingue
Hakluyt, Edward, 16
Halifax, 36, 52–53
Hamilton, Alexander, 3
Hamilton, Dr. Alexander, 34
Hanway, Jonas, 61
Hawes, William, 115
Hayes, Edward, 11
Haygarth, John, 156–57
Heister, Daniel, 140
Henry VIII, 61
Hippocrates, 10, 70
Hobbes, Thomas, 5
Holland, James, 135, 139–40
Holme, Thomas, 3, 9–12, 17–19, 154
Hooke, Robert, 17
Hospital Bill (1775), 96
hospitals
almshouses, 61, 64
Bedlam Hospital, 19
Bush Hill Hospital, 124–25
contrasted with French, 64
general versus “flying,” 96–97
medieval, 62–64
military, 96–97
reforms, 61–64, 115
St. Thomas’s, 43
voluntary, 59, 61, 63–64, 69–70
Howard, John, 149
Howe, William, 86, 107
humors and humoral theory, 3, 10
Hutchinson, James, 67, 79–81, 84–85, 87, 100–101, 109, 111, 121–24, 142
hygiene. See cleanliness
immigration, 51
and disease, 34–36, 38, 54, 62, 122
diversity of immigrants, 32–34
motivations for, 21–25
and quarantine, 151
in the wilderness, 51
See also Germans; refugees
indentured servants, 40–42
Indians
bodies of, 11, 105–6, 161
claim to land, 22
conflict with, 13, 39
epidemics among, 11, 106, 161
medicine, 106
Mi’kmaq, 52
societies of, 14–15, 105–6
Ingersoll, Jared, 146
injury
as public health problem, 61–62
treatment of, 12, 84
in wartime, 86–89
inoculation
in Boston, 109
opposition to, 93
in the Revolutionary War, 93–95, 102
of smallpox, 93–95, 140
See also smallpox
inspections
of homes, 73–74, 128
of marketable produce, 31
of ships, 36, 44, 122, 128, 144, 146–47
Interregnum, 8
Ireland, 22
English plantations in, 8–9
environmental engineering of, 22, 25
immigrants from, 37, 40, 52
Penn’s experiences in, 8–9
jail. See penal reform
James I, 13
Jamestown, 11, 15, 22
Jay, John, 138
Jefferson, Thomas, 105–6, 153, 157–60
Jockey Hollow, encampment at, 89, 92, 102
(p.223) Jones, Absalom, 129
Jones, John, 87, 88, 101, 111
Johnson, Samuel, 33
Kearsley, John, 111
Knox, Henry, 122
labor
and health, 66–69, 81, 160
importance in English identity, 13–16
market in England, 21–23
as national wealth, 5, 60–61, 66, 82
Latrobe, Benjamin, 154, 162
Lawrence, Charles, 52–53
lazaretto, 3, 33, 42–49, 50, 63, 101, 145, 148–49
Acadian refugee internment, 52
Leeds, Samuel, 99
Lettsom, John, 78
Lewis, Meriwether, 153–54, 156, 161
Leyden, 43, 79, 81
liberalism, 58–59, 68–69
and quarantine, 138–41, 149–51
Locke, John, 15, 17, 24, 26, 28
Logan, James, 39, 45
London, 7, 9, 17, 77
Louisiana, xi, 153, 161–62
Lunenburg, 52
luxury, 57, 73–75
Lyman, William, 140
malaria, 12–13
Mandeville, Bernard, 61, 116
manuals, medical. See books
Marine Hospital. See lazaretto
Marine Society, 61
market
complaints about, 70–72, 109
in Philadelphia, 31, 70–72
regulation of, 31, 71–72, 109–10
Markham, William, 27
marsh. See swamp
Marshall, Humphrey, 77
Maryland, 9, 26, 38–39, 41
Mather, Cotton, 93
McLane, Allen, 141
Mease, James, 98, 101, 108–9, 112, 118, 131 as resident physician, 142–46
Medical Department (Continental Army), 96–98
medicine
paradigms of, 94, 103–6, 112–13, 124–27
professionalization of, 100–102
rivalries within, 98–100, 125–27
mercantilism, 23–25
“Mercator,” 137
merchants, 24, 50, 54, 58, 110, 120, 136, 138, 147, 160
metaphor
of body to society, 5–6
of physical to moral health, 6, 92, 112, 114, 117
meteorology, 70, 77–78, 82, 105, 113
See also climate
miasma, 8, 10, 13, 14, 109, 126, 158
Mifflin, Thomas, 101, 126, 128, 131, 136, 138, 141–43
migration. See Germans; immigration; refugees
military encampments, 89–93
military hospitals
conditions in, 97–98
doctrine of, 99
regimental vs. general, 96–98
military medicine, 86–93
Milledge, John, 140
Mitchill, Samuel Latham, 145
Mittelberger, Gottlieb, 54
Monro, Alexander, 79
Montresor, John, 1
Moor-Fields,19
See also gardens and gardening; parks moral health, 114
and cleanliness, 92
and land, 28
and prisons, 117–18
Morgan, John, 78–79, 83–84, 96–100, 111
Morris, Robert Hunter, 53–56
Munster, 14
Nantes, Edict of, 34
Nash, Gary, 39
natalism, 74
nationalism, 157–60
nativism, 35–36, 51–56
naturals and non-naturals. See humors and humoral theory
nerves, 103–5, 157
See also sensibility
Newcourt, Richard, 17
New Orleans, 114, 162
New York, 9, 34, 36, 70, 101, 142–43, 146, 160
competition with Philadelphia, 153
quarantine controversy, 136–37
relief funds, 150
Nicholson, Francis, 19
Nicole, Pierre, 1–3, 154
(p.224) Niving, Ninian, 63
nosology, 126–27
Nova Scotia, 51–52
See also Acadians
noxious trades, 3–4, 8, 70
nuisance, 4, 14, 29, 31, 71–73, 108–9, 155
nurses, 86–88, 91, 96, 129–30, 133
Onesimus, 93
orphans, 60–61
Overseers of the Poor, 67
Paine, Thomas, 103
Palatines. See Germans
panic, during yellow fever, 120–21, 128, 130–34
papists. See Catholicism
Parke, Thomas, 79, 83, 84
pastoral ideology, 13–15, 26–27, 159
Pastorius, Daniel Francis, 24, 29
Patriot movement, 80, 82, 84–86, 98, 100–101
Peckham, George, 22
Pemberton, Israel, 45, 77, 80, 84, 115
See also Quaker Party
penal reform, 114, 117–18
penitentiary movement. See penal reform
Penn, Admiral William, 8
Penn, John, 40
Penn, Thomas, 39
Penn, William, xi
and city planning, 7–21
death of, 38
personal philosophy, 19
Pennsylvania Hospital, 59–64, 114–15
pesthouse. See lazaretto
Peter Porcupine, 142–43
Pettit, Charles, 67
Petty, William, xi, 7, 16, 23–24, 28, 35
pharmacy, compared to medicine, 78–79
Philadelphia
location, 7, 14
occupation of, 1, 107–8
planning of, 14, 17–20
survey of, 1–3
Philadelphia Board of Health, 126–28, 130, 136, 138, 144, 146, 147, 150–51
Philadelphia City Council, 70–73, 109–10, 151
Philadelphia Corporation, 31, 70–73, 137
Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, 117
philanthropy, 60–63, 114–15
physicians
associations for improvement, 110–12
diction of, 112–13
education and status of, 78–81
during the Revolutionary War, 87–93
position of, 75–78
postwar status, 100–102
and yellow fever, 124, 133
Pickstone, John, 4
plague, 7, 9
Plantation Act (1740), 34
planting, 9, 108–9
Plattes, Gabriel, 13, 16
police, 141
“political arithmetick,” xi, 7, 24
pollution, 3, 7–8, 30–31, 72–73, 109, 122, 125, 155
population, x–xi, 22–25, 39, 60, 87
port physician, 42–48, 122, 142
port wardens, 122, 124, 129, 146
poverty
in Europe, 23–25
medical relief for, 64–67, 115
and moral hazard, 60–61
and religious persecution, 24
social relief of, 61
and yellow fever, 123
presidential powers, 140–41
Priestly, Joseph, 108
Pringle, John, 70, 87, 96–97
professionalization of medicine, 89, 100–2
medical apprenticeships, 78–81
and midwifery, 75
of physicians, 110–14
rivalry:
Currie versus Rush, 126–27;
Morgan versus Shippen, 98–100
projects, 22, 24, 58–62, 73, 78, 103–5, 110, 118, 120, 155
pronatalism. See population
proprietary government, 25–31
differences from Maryland charter, 26
opposition to, 27–28, 39–41, 49–51
rescinded, 28
Shaftesbury’s “grand model,” 9–10, 24
Protestants and Protestantism
attitude to wilderness, 16
political involvement of, 50, 56
position in Europe, 34–35, 45
settlement by, 25
See also Germans
Province Island, 3, 50, 53
See also State Island
provincialism, 49–52
public health, 3–6
Puritans and Puritanism, 5, 8, 9, 16, 27, 68
(p.225) Quaker Party, 39–42, 45, 49–52
Quakers and Quakerism, 9, 16, 24, 32, 35, 41, 68, 79
and criminal reform, 117
political involvement of, 49–52
quarantine, 5
of 1795, 136–38, 141, 150
in Boston, 36
in colonial period, 36–37, 42–43
effects on trade, 147–48
evasion, 136–38; 147–49
federal, 135–41, 151
interstate, 146–48
quarantine debate, 135–41, 151
race
climatic explanations for, 15, 81–82, 105–6, 110, 157–58
racism, 105–6
and yellow fever, 129–30
Ramsay, David, 105
recruitment controversy, 40–42
Reed, Walter, 125
refinement, 73–75
refugees, 34, 52–53, 94, 122–24
regulation
of immigration, 151
of markets, 31, 71–72, 109–10
of military camps, 91–92
of noxious trades, 71–72
of sanitation, 69–72, 110, 127
of shipping, 122
religion
diversity of in Pennsylvania, 33–35
among German immigrants, 41, 49
persecution, 23–25
and politics, 19
religious toleration, 8, 19, 20, 24, 34, 64
republicanism, 121, 124
republican medicine, 112, 118
Restoration, 8–9, 17–19, 22–25, 105
restoration cities, 17–19
Revolutionary War, American, 86–100
Rittenhouse, David, 78, 85
Royal Society, 104
Rush, Benjamin, 101, 153
and American nationalism, 83, 105, 153–63
and education, 83, 112, 114
and medical publishing, 112–14
and military medicine, 88, 92, 95–96
opposition to cities, 155, 159–60
and Pennsylvania Hospital, 63
and postwar reforms, 103–4, 108, 111–18
and public service, 128
and race, 105–6, 129
and sensibility, 131
and Yellow Fever, 108, 122, 125–32, 142–45
Saint Domingue, 122
sanitation
in colonial period, 31–32, 69–72
in military camps, 90–92
in postwar city, 107–9
sewer system, 110
and yellow fever, 127–29
Saur, Christopher, 35, 38, 46, 51, 54
Schuylkill River, 3
Scottish Enlightenment. See Edinburgh
sensibility, 104–5, 118
Senter, Isaac, 113
Seven Years’ War, 52, 87
sewers. See sanitation
Shaftesbury. See Cooper, Anthony Ashley
Shaftesbury model, 12, 26, 28
Shippen, William, 79, 95–100, 111
ships, by name
Arethusa, 142
Constantine, 48
Dorothy, 37
Hinde, 142–43
Pilgrim, 143, 146
ships and shipping
conditions aboard, 33, 36, 42, 54
inspections, 55, 122
sinecures, 41–48, 100–102
slaves and slavery, 40, 82, 122
smallpox, 69, 93–100, 107
Boston outbreak (1721), 93
inoculation, 93–95, 116
Philadelphia Outbreak (1759), 94
and Revolutionary War, 93–95
Smith, John, 11
Smith, Samuel, 135, 138–41
smog, 8
Smollett, Tobias, 36, 70
Society Hill, 68, 73
solidism, 125
South Carolina. See Carolina
Speed, Adolphus, 16
St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, 61, 81
stadial theory, 106, 161
Stamp Act, 82
State Island, 101, 127, 144, 148
streets and sidewalks
cleaning of, 29–31, 72, 107, 109, 155
gridiron plan, 1, 57, 154
paving of, 72, 109–10, 155
width of, 57
surgery and surgeons, 78–81, 95–98, 116
swamp, 25
Sydenham, John, 10, 28, 105, 125
Sydenham, Thomas, 3
(p.226) tanning and tanners. See noxious trades
taxation
colonial, 81
and proprietary rule, 49–51
tea, 67, 81–82
temperance. See alcohol, regulation of
Thacher, James, 88
therapeutics, social, 10
See also Galen
Thomas, George, 40, 42, 42–49, 62, 70
Tilton, James, 92, 97
“Tilton Hut,” 102
Tissot, Samuel-Auguste David, 58, 82, 104
Tomlins, Christopher, x–xi, 141
Treasury Department, 140–41
Tully, Alan, 39, 50
utilitarianism, 64–66
Valley Forge, encampment at, 90, 92, 95, 100, 102
Varick, Mary Richard, 150
Venable, Robert, 72
vice, 14–15
Virginia, 11–12, 41
von Steuben, Freidrich, 92–93
War
American Revolutionary, 86–100
Jenkins’ Ear, 40
King William’s, 28
Seven Years’, 52, 87
Wardens of the Port. See port wardens
Washington, George, 91, 94, 105, 124
water
necessary to cleanliness, 154
as a public health concern, 13–14, 129
public provision of, 154–55
as vector for mosquitos, 129
Waterhouse, Benjamin, 81
Waters, Mary, 88
waterworks, 154–55
Wayne, Anthony, 88, 98, 101
weather. See climate; meteorology
Webster, Noah, 155
Weiser, Conrad, 49
West Indies, 11, 82
diseases from, 122
quarantine of, 142
trade with, 32, 58
West Jersey Concessions, 24
West New Jersey, 8
See also New Jersey
Whig ideology, 34
White, William, 117
wilderness
in English imagination, symbolic function of, x, 13–16
in Pennsylvania, 27
See also forests
Wilkins, Henry, 67
Williamsburg, 19
Wilmington, Delaware, 147
Wistar, Caspar, 153
Wolcott, Oliver, 141
women
household management and childrearing, 74–75
as war nurses, 91
Woolman, John, 58–59, 68–69
Wren, Christopher, 17, 28
Wynkoop, Benjamin, 144
Wynkoop, Henry, 150
xenophobia, 122
yellow fever, 158–59
“Barbados Distemper,” 32, 35
evacuation of Philadelphia, 133
outbreak of 1699, 35
outbreak of 1741, German, 38
outbreak of 1793, 120–34
and race, 129–30
refugees of, 122–24, 136
yeoman, conditions of, 159–60
Zachary, Lloyd, 42–43, 48