This afterword argues that the practices of mediation, classification, and demarcation elaborated by trans-imperial subjects in early modern Venice constituted important elements in the genealogy of Enlightenment anthropology and the nascent discipline of Orientalism. In particular, eighteenth-century Orientalists, who articulated taxonomies of Mediterranean peoples based on language, ritual, and custom, relied on the efforts of their trans-imperial forebears in the previous two centuries to institutionalize their specialized knowledge of things Ottoman in several European metropoles. The scientific study of Ottoman culture depended on the development of commercial and diplomatic institutions that facilitated the production and circulation of specific kinds of knowledge across linguistic and political boundaries. The concept of trans-imperial subjects raises important questions about prevailing notions of early modern coloniality, citizenship, and subjecthood.
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