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Popular Democracy in JapanHow Gender and Community Are Changing Modern Electoral Politics$
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Sherry L. Martin

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780801449178

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801449178.001.0001

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Engendering Knowledge and Political Action

(p.159) Conclusion
Popular Democracy in Japan

Sherry L. Martin

Cornell University Press

This concluding chapter offers concrete examples of political action by women and for women that is inextricable from the cognitive processes that are mobilized in political conversation, study and lifelong learning, and local political action. It examines how the state's interest in bringing citizens into collaborative relationships to solve problems coalesces with citizens' demands for direct participation. Japanese women are thus placed at the center of a struggle to harness human capital to achieve state developmental goals. The process by which everyday citizens convert basic education into knowledge for empowerment raises important questions for further research on the potential for lifelong learning to empower underrepresented and socially disadvantaged groups in the political process. The chapter concludes with reflections on the potential and limits of lifelong learning in promoting political deliberation, a more inclusive democracy, and more representative outcomes.

Keywords:   women's political practices, lifelong learning, knowledge empowerment, democracy, direct political participation

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