Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Memory of All Ancient CustomsNative American Diplomacy in the Colonial Hudson Valley$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Tom Arne Midtrod

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780801449376

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801449376.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM Cornell University Press SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.cornell.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Cornell University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in Cornell for personal use (for details see www.cornell.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy/privacy-policy-and-legal-notice).date: 21 October 2018



(p.210) Conclusion
The Memory of All Ancient Customs

Tom Arne Midtrød

Cornell University Press

This concluding chapter summarizes key themes and presents some final thoughts. It argues that the demise of a visible Native political life in the Hudson Valley by the early 1780s should not obscure the fact that the Indian societies in this area had been remarkably tenacious. The Hudson Valley Indians had stood in the direct path of European expansion since the early seventeenth century. Given the odds stacked against them, it is remarkable that such groups as the Wappingers, the Esopus Indians, and the Mahicans managed to maintain a strong presence in their homeland for as long as they did. Part of the reason for the persistence of a visible Native presence in the Hudson Valley for almost two centuries after sustained European contact may be found in the strong ties that linked the various Native peoples in the area to one another. These ties created a diplomatic network capable of ensuring overwhelmingly peaceful and cooperative relations among its participants.

Keywords:   Hudson Valley Indians, Native Americans, Indian societies, diplomatic network, Wappingers, Esopus Indians, Mahicans

Cornell Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.