This concluding chapter summarizes key themes and presents some final thoughts. It argues that the demise of a visible Native political life in the Hudson Valley by the early 1780s should not obscure the fact that the Indian societies in this area had been remarkably tenacious. The Hudson Valley Indians had stood in the direct path of European expansion since the early seventeenth century. Given the odds stacked against them, it is remarkable that such groups as the Wappingers, the Esopus Indians, and the Mahicans managed to maintain a strong presence in their homeland for as long as they did. Part of the reason for the persistence of a visible Native presence in the Hudson Valley for almost two centuries after sustained European contact may be found in the strong ties that linked the various Native peoples in the area to one another. These ties created a diplomatic network capable of ensuring overwhelmingly peaceful and cooperative relations among its participants.
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