This concluding chapter first discusses three overarching trends revealed by the comparison of embryo politics in United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany from 1968–96 and 1997–2008. These are the rise and decline of a structured public debate about the moral status of the embryo and the value of biomedical research; the fading of deeper historical legacies and the rise of more recent institutional constraints as frames for policy struggles; and increasing political salience of embryo, stem cell, and cloning research amid electoral and interest group mobilization. The intersection of these related trends has shaped the evolution of research regimes in all four countries and transformed the shape of embryo politics over time. The chapter then details two controversial areas moving onto the policy agenda: preimplantation genetic diagnosis and genetic enhancement. It concludes by considering the future paths of embryo politics.
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