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The Enduring Warfare State
This chapter looks at the battle against militarization. The Vietnam War compelled American activists to attack the military-industrial-academic complex. By systematically unmasking “the Pentagon's counterinsurgency apparatus”—its rich resources, dense institutional network, faulty science, perverse psychology, and secretive and brutal operations—activists aspired to end militarization itself. Indeed, activists rejoiced when Center for Research on Social Systems (CRESS) and American University officially terminated their relationship in October 1969. However, CRESS checked in with a new parent organization—the large, private, nonprofit contract research agency, American Institutes for Research (AIR). By the end of the 1970s, the number of private contract research agencies had grown exponentially. The military became more dependent on militarized expertise; but after universities severed their ties to the Pentagon, the quality of that expertise diminished and its institutions became more covert.
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