Many people suppose that I wrote a book about dogs because I am a dog lover. My family kept two dogs, an English pointer Belle (1965–1979) and a German short-haired pointer Christy (1976–1978), when I was a child, but many years delivering newspapers added some ambiguity to my fondness for canines. I never thought I would write a book about dogs. Perhaps, though, I should have realized that canines were my fate. After all, I had been born in the year of the dog.
You are probably not persuaded by an explanation that is based on the Chinese zodiac. Even more important, invoking astrologic destiny would fail to recognize many generous individuals who helped make this book a reality. I am intellectually indebted foremost to Gregory Pflugfelder of Columbia University. From this book’s inception through its many gestations, Greg has been a model mentor—pushing me to think big while paying attention to detail, critiquing drafts at various stages, and even welcoming my family to his mother’s home and pool in northern California.
The Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at Columbia was a wonderful place to study. Along with Greg, Carol Gluck and Henry D. Smith II offered their abiding support for this book from the beginning. In addition to this trinity, Richard Bulliet of Columbia University and Brett Walker of Montana State University offered useful suggestions. Also at Columbia, Paul Anderer, William Leach, David Lurie, Gregory Mann, Anupama Rao, and Marcia Wright provided invaluable assistance and concrete advice. I was blessed with superb colleagues at Columbia in the departments of History and East Asian Languages and Cultures, including Nicole Cohen, Tim Davis, Dennis Frost, Eric Han, Reto Hofmann, Lisa Hosokawa, Mark Jones, Joy Kim, Konrad Lawson, Ethan Mark, Laura Nietzl, Scott O’Bryan, Lee Pennington, Julie Rousseau, Kenneth Ruoff, Jordan Sand, Jack Stoneman, Lori Watt, Leila R. Wice, and Takashi Yoshida, whom I thank for their ongoing intellectual camaraderie. Special thanks go to Ian Miller, now at Harvard University, who from my first visit to Columbia has always been a superb senpai (senior colleague). (p.xii)
This book benefited immensely from the more than three years I spent in Japan between 2002 and 2006. I am thankful to Yoshida Yutaka of Hitotsubashi University for furnishing institutional affiliation during my initial research in Tokyo, and Matsuura Masataka of Hokkaido University for repeatedly securing funding that allowed me to complete my research and writing while based in Sapporo. For several years, Tsukamoto Manabu of the National Museum of Japanese History in Chiba served as an unofficial sponsor of, and inspiration for, my work. His colleague, Shinohara Toru, now the director general of the Lake Biwa Museum, was generous with his time. In the Faculty of Law at Hokkaido University, I am particularly indebted to Makabe Jun, who carefully read and checked the first two chapters, as well as Michael Burtscher, Naomi Hyunjoo Chi, Endō Ken, Furuya Jun, Kawashima Shin, Komori Teruo, Matsuo Motonori, Miyamoto Tarō, Satō Tatsu, Takada Naoko, Watari Tadasu, Michael Wood, and Yamaguchi Jirō. In the Faculty of Letters, Inoue Katsuo, Shirakizawa Asahiko, and Asai Ryōsuke lent invaluable guidance.
I am grateful to former colleagues at Nissho Electronics, especially Fukuda Takashi, Mizuno Masahiro, Michitaka Sachihiko, and the Moros (Toshio and Toshiko), for providing my family and me with a means to survive while studying in New York, even after I had left the company for Columbia, and a free place to stay at the Nissho dormitory in Koganei while in Tokyo.
During the course of my research, many people at numerous libraries, museums, and archives helped me, and I am able to thank only a few by name. Ria Koopmans-de-Bruijin and Mihoko Miki of the C. V. Starr East Asian Library at Columbia University aided me in the earliest stages. Archival materials housed by dog-fancying and animal-protection organizations proved essential to my work. I appreciate the cooperation of Barbara Kolk of the American Kennel Club, Kellie Snow of the (English) Kennel Club, Uki Terukuni of the Society for the Preservation of Japanese Dogs, Nakamoto Norio of the Japan Shepherd Association, Saitō Takeshi of the Nippon Police Dog Association, Aida Yasuhiko of the Japanese Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and Takada Susumu of the Japan Kennel Club. I received kind assistance from New York book collector Don J. Cohn, Mori Shigeo of the East Japan Railway Company, Honma Zen’ei of Kōdansha Publishers, Mochimaru Yoriko and Nakagawa Shigeo of the Tokyo Zoological Park Society, Iwasaki Seiji and Obara Iwai of the National Science Museum, and Ono Masako of the Okinawa Prefectural Historiographical Institute. The talented staff members at the following libraries, archives, and museums made this project a pleasure: the Butler and Lehman libraries at Columbia University, the Hitotsubashi University Library, the Resource Collection for Northern Studies at Hokkaido University and the Hokkaido University Library, the Waseda University Library, the Historiographical Institute at the University of Tokyo, the Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University Library, the National Diet Library, the Tokyo Metropolitan libraries, the International Library of Children’s Literature, the National Institute for Educational Policy of Japan Library, the Hokkaido Prefectural Archives, the (p.xiii) Tokyo Shoseki Archive, the Kaikō Archive and Yūshūkan Military and War Memorial Museum at Yasukuni Shrine, the Shochiku Ōtani Library, the Film Center of the National Museum of Modern Art, the Yokohama Archives of History, the National Showa-Memorial Museum, the Sanrizuka Museum of the Imperial Household Ranch, the Edwin Dun Memorial Museum, and the Pet Cemetery of the Jindaiji Temple. Physically tracking down all the material that now fills several filing cabinets in my office—and in the process interacting with so many wonderful people—was truly a pleasure.
From start to finish, this book has been a collaborative endeavor. Many individuals went out of their way to send me source material and leads, translate passages from German, Korean, and Chinese and check my feeble renderings of French, critique my written work, and help my research move along. Though I am surely leaving out many such benefactors, thanks go to Joseph Allen, Jacquie Atkins, Chiu Li-chen, Emi Chizuko, Sharon Domier, Holger Frank, Robert J. Gordon, Dan Hiatt, David Howell, Anthony Jenkins, Kataoka Miwako, Elizabeth Kenney, Ann Kim, Christine Kim, Li Da, John Mertz, Manuel Metzner, Setsu Murdock, Ōshima Reiko, Jaeoh Park, Boria Sax, Shimizu Isao, Shinoda Mariko, Lance van Sittert, Grant and Paul Skabelund, Uchikoshi Ayako, and Watabe Kōji. Four individuals were particularly generous in sharing their many years’ worth of research: Hiroshi Sakamoto, Chiba Yū, Hayashi Masaharu, and Tanabe Yasuichi. In Tokyo, Sawabe Shōzō and Hiraiwa Yukiko kindly met with me to talk about their families’ involvement with dogs.
Past teachers Peter Duus and the late Jeffrey Mass at Stanford University; J. Michael Allen, Van C. Gessel, and Lee Farnsworth at Brigham Young University; and Mr. (Glenn V.) Bird of Springville High School inspired and prepared me to become a historian. Peter Duus, in particular, supported this book from afar, tracking down, with the help of Alexander Bay, political cartoons that featured dogs from his rich collection.
Parts of this book were presented as papers at the following institutions and conferences: Columbia University; Hokkaido University; Seton Hall University; Utah Valley State College; the Western Association of Asian Studies annual meeting (2002); the Association of Asian Studies annual conference (2003); the “Animals in History: Studying the Not So Human Past” conference at the University of Cologne; the “Crime, Law, and Order in the Japanese Empire, 1895–1945” conference at the Netherlands Institute of War Documentation; the Asian Studies Conference Japan (2007); the Social and Cultural History of Children and Youth Conference (2007); the Considering Animals Conference at the University of Tasmania; and the Animals and Gender Conference at Uppsala University. I thank many individuals, including Paul Barclay, Barbara Brooks, Jonathan Burt, Thomas DuBois, Kathleen Kete, Hans Martin Krämer, Susan Pearson, Harriet Ritvo, Nigel Rothfels, and Conrad Totman, who provided useful feedback in response to those presentations. I am particularly indebted to Susan McHugh, whom I first met in Cologne and who kindly read and critiqued the entire manuscript in early 2009. (p.xiv)
Since 2006 I have had the privilege of teaching and continuing my research and writing in the Department of History at Brigham Young University. Sincere thanks go to the members of the department’s writing group, who not once but twice read different iterations of the introduction. In particular, I appreciate Kirk Larsen and Rebecca de Schweinitz, who went the second mile to critique several other chapters. Within and beyond the department, Kendall Brown, Jay Buckley, Cory Crawford, Leslie Hadfield, Arnold Green, Andrew Johns, Gail King, David McClure, Michael McKay, Scott Miller, Neil L. York, and Katherine White have been generous with their time and advice.
Opportunities to publish parts of my research helped to push this book forward. Earlier versions of this material have been published as “Can the Subaltern Bark? Imperialism, Civilization, and Canine Cultures in Nineteenth-Century Japan,” in JAPANimals: History and Culture in Japan’s Animal Life, ed. Gregory M. Pflugfelder and Brett L. Walker (Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2005), 194–243; “Breeding Racism: The Imperial Battlefields of the ‘German’ Shepherd,” Society and Animals 16, no. 4 (Winter 2008): 354–71; “Fascism’s Furry Friends: Dogs, National Identity, and Racial Purity in 1930s Japan,” in The Culture of Japanese Fascism, ed. Alan Tansman (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 155–82; “Rassismus züchten: Das imperiale Schlachtfeld des ‘Deutschen’ Schäferhunds” [Breeding racism: The imperial battlefields of the “German” shepherd], in Tierische Geschichte: Die Beziehung von Mensch und Tier in der Kultur der Moderne [Animal history: Human-animal relations in the culture of modernity], ed. Dorothee Brantz and Christof Mauch (Paderborn, DEU: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2009), 58–78. Other material is forthcoming as “The Teacher’s Pet: Mobilizing Dogs and Children for War,” in Society, Animals, and Gender, ed. Måns Andersson (Uppsala, SWE: Uppsala University Press). I am thankful to these editors and to anonymous manuscript readers for their thoughtful suggestions.
Research and writing were made possible through generous financial support from a number of institutions and individuals. I thank Boyd Smith of Palo Alto for generously providing “seed” money to begin my graduate work in New York, and to an anonymous individual who gave our struggling family an unexpected gift on our first Christmas at Columbia, an envelope containing a handful of very large bills in my department folder in the filing cabinet on the second floor of Kent Hall. The East Asian Languages and Cultures Department and Weatherhead East Asian Institute at Columbia University awarded me several fellowships. The Center of Historical Studies and McKeldin Library at the University of Maryland provided me with a Twentieth-Century Japan Research Award to conduct research in the Gordon W. Prange Collection. A Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellowship from the U.S. Department of Education and a National Security Education Program David L. Boren Graduate Fellowship from the U.S. Department of Defense funded my field research in Japan. A two-year graduate research fellowship at the Faculty of Law at Hokkaido University and a postdoctoral fellowship from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science allowed me to complete my research and writing. Since (p.xv) 2006, funding from the Department of History, the College of Family, Home, and Social Sciences, and the David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies at Brigham Young University has enabled me to continue my research and writing, as well as underwriting the publication of this book. In addition, a subvention from University Seminars at Columbia University and a research grant from the College of Home, Family, and Social Sciences at Brigham Young University helped to defray the expense of including the illustrations herein.
An earlier, shorter version of this book was translated into Japanese and published in late 2009 as Inu no teikoku: Bakumatsu Nippon kara gendai made [Empire of dogs: Bakumatsu Nippon to the present] by Iwanami Shoten. The process of publishing the book first in Japanese contributed immensely to its development. I am thankful to my translator, Motohashi Tetsuya, and at Iwanami my editor, Yamada Mari, as well as Itō Rika, Odano Kōmei, and Yamakoshi Kazuko.
Carol Gluck arranged to have the manuscript published in Columbia University’s Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute monograph series. Daniel Rivero and his predecessor, Madge Huntington, at the Weatherhead East Asian Institute arranged for two anonymous reviews of the manuscript. I am grateful to both and to Roger Haydon and his superb team at Cornell University Press, whose guidance I have benefited from during the final stages of this project. A third anonymous reviewer helped me to better highlight some the manuscript’s key arguments.
Finally, I appreciate Skabelund kin throughout the United States and the Todate family in Hokkaido for providing all kinds of encouragement, and most immediately to my sons Alistor and Mauri for the soccer games, swim meets, bike rides, skiing, and other satisfying “distractions,” to Sora and Botan for nightly walks in Lions Park, and especially to my talented companion Seiko, who drew the map and lent her support in innumerable other ways.
Asian personal names in this book appear surname (family name) first followed by personal name except in the cases of Asian Americans or Asian scholars based in the United States who publish in English. I use the family name alone in subsequent references (e.g., Saitō for Saitō Hirokichi). I have included the appropriate diacritical marks for Japanese and Korean words and names, except for common words and place-names such as Tokyo and Hokkaido. All translations of Japanese and French are mine, unless otherwise noted. (p.xvi)