Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Insurgency TrapLabor Politics in Postsocialist China$

Eli Friedman

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780801452697

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801452697.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM Cornell University Press SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.cornell.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Cornell University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in Cornell for personal use (for details see http://cornell.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy/privacy-policy-and-legal-notice). Subscriber: null; date: 18 June 2018

(p.207) Index

(p.207) Index

Source:
Insurgency Trap
Publisher:
Cornell University Press

Page numbers followed by letters f and t refer to figures and tables, respectively.

All China Federation of Industry and Commerce (ACFIC), 105
All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU):
and anti-imperialist struggle, 15, 33–36;
and appropriated representation, 22, 24, 26, 51, 174;
and class compromise, task of realizing, 162;
and collective negotiations, 48, 51, 114;
Communist Party and, 31, 38, 42, 47, 59, 163–64;
crisis of legitimacy of, 51–52;
and Enterprise Union Work Regulations, 73;
and foreign unions, 175;
founding and early activities of, 29–30, 31;
gaining access to, 25;
goals of, 26, 59, 164;
independent worker organizations and, 46, 47;
industrial unions within, 56;
KMT attacks on unions and, 37–38;
legislative focus of, 48–49, 53;
membership of, 52, 53;
migrant workers recognized by, 48, 51;
oligarchic behavior of, 24, 134;
in postsocialist era, 48–52;
postwar development of, 38–44;
in reform era (1980s), 44–48;
and regional federations, 56;
in revolutionary years, 31–33, 35;
and sectoral unions, 56–57, 122;
vs. unions in capitalist states, 30;
unions under umbrella of, 5, 56–57;
and Walmart campaign of 2006, 3, 70;
on Wenling Model, 124;
worker insurgency and response of, 6, 45–46, 138, 151
American New Deal, 18, 182n21
anti-imperialism, labor unions and, 15, 33–36, 59–60
Anti-Rightist Movement, 43
appropriated representation, 22–23, 24, 162;
ACFTU and, 22, 24, 26, 51, 174;
vs. corporatism, 23;
as impediment to decommodification and incorporation, 26, 126, 174;
vs. oligarchy, 24;
in postrevolutionary years, 38;
Rui’an Eyeglass Union and, 126;
and union access to state power, 75
Arrighi, Giovanni, 172–73
Ascendant Elevator, 86, 135–40;
conditions for workers at, 87;
dual labor market in, 135, 139–40;
enterprise-level union at, 137–38, 139;
labor bureau response to strike at, 138–39;
media coverage of strike at, 136, 139;
Nanhai Honda compared to, 135, 141, 156–60;
outcome of strike at, 133, 139–40, 157, 158;
strike at, 132, 137–40
Beijing, protests of 1989 in, 45–46
benevolent technocracy, 176–77
Biddulph, Sarah, 128
Burawoy, Michael, 15, 18, 100, 133
Cai, Yongshun, 134–35
capital:
foreign, difficulty in organizing, 124;
local, and sectoral-level collective bargaining, 123;
local state and, alliance between, 5, 20, 126, 131, 132, 138–39, 161, 175;
pull factors for, 171;
relocation of production by, 169–72;
union cooperation with, 39, 57–59. See also employer associations
cellular activism, worker resistance as, 13, 133, 160
central government:
and benevolent technocracy scenario, 176–77;
and class compromise, leanings toward, 2, 18
chaebol, 167
Chan, Anita, 46
Chan, Chris, 13
Chang Kai, 148
Chen, Calvin, 100, 102, 103
Chen, Feng, 13, 88
Chen Chengwei, 112, 113
Chen Duxiu, 31
Cheng Weiji, 137–38
Chen Jianhua, 121
Chen Weiguang, 27, 63–74;
Ascendant Elevator strike and, 138, 139;
ascension of, questions regarding, 69;
calls for union reform, 65–66, 152, 153;
constraints on, 89, 91;
dedication of, 64;
defense of worker rights by, 66–67;
formative experience of, 64–65;
Hitachi Elevator union chair on, 76;
(p.208) influence of, 62;
introduction to, 25;
joint appointment of, 54;
Liu Yongyi case and, 89;
on minimum wage, 71;
priorities of, 90;
on sanitation workers, 119;
and sectoral unions, 90;
on sectoral unions, 118;
on strikes, 67–68;
strike wave of 2010 and, 149–50;
successor of, 90;
union officers recruited by, 69–71, 73;
visit to U.S., 135–36;
visit to Zhejiang unions, 103
Chen Yun, 39
Chiang Kai-shek, 36–37
China Enterprise Confederation-China Enterprise Directors Association (CEC-CEDA), 105
China Federation of Labor (CFL), 167
Chinese Communist Party (CCP):
KMT and, 36–37;
local branches of, role in collective bargaining, 109, 114;
in revolutionary years, 30, 36–37;
rural organizing by, 37;
strike wave of 2010 and, 151–52;
and unions, 31, 38, 42, 45, 46–47, 48, 52–55, 56, 58f, 59, 60, 163–64;
Chen Weiguang on, 67;
and urban working class, 30–31
Chun Doo-hwan, 168
Clarke, Simon, 168
class compromise:
ACFTU and task of, 162;
central government’s policies on, 2, 18;
failure of efforts to promote, 5, 18, 161, 176;
impediments to, 174–75;
institutional moment of countermovement and, 6, 19–20;
need for, 173;
tentative first steps toward, 63
class struggle:
anti-imperialist rhetoric and, 33, 34–35;
and transition from insurgent to institutional moment of countermovement, 132. See also worker insurgency
collective agreements:
collective negotiation:
ACFTU and, 48, 51, 114;
autonomy from capital as prerequisite for, 74;
vs. collective bargaining, 50;
enterprise-level union and, 57;
GZFTU and, 73, 74;
legislation allowing, 152;
at Nanhai Honda, 156, 158;
top-down approach to, 51;
Zeng Qinghong on, 151–52
Collier, David, 20–21
Collier, Ruth, 20–21
colonial experience, impact on labor politics, 15, 33–36, 59–60
command economy (1950s-70s):
decommodification under, 7, 30, 59;
social welfare under, 8–9
commodification:
and new power arrangements in society, 134;
piece-rate system as, 157;
Polanyi on, 18;
in reform-era China, 7;
and worker unrest, 12, 13
Cooney, Sean, 128
corporatism, vs. appropriated representation, 23
countermovement:
historical waves of marketization and, 15–16;
institutional moment of, 6, 18–21, 22f, 134, 162;
insurgent moment of, 6, 18–19, 22f, 134, 162;
New Deal as, 18, 182n21;
Polanyi’s theory of, 6, 17, 18, 133;
reformulation of concept, 18–21, 22f, 182n16;
stalling of transition from insurgent to institutional moment in, 21–22, 92, 132, 134. See also institutional moment of countermovement; insurgent moment of countermovement
Cultural Revolution, 44, 177
dagongmei/zai (working girl/boy), 13
Dalian development zone, strike wave in, 150, 183n26
danwei system, 7, 15–16, 38;
and decommodification of labor, 30, 38, 60;
destruction of, 12, 48;
health care under, 8;
pensions under, 9
decommodification:
ACFTU’s attempts at, 6;
appropriated representation as impediment to, 26, 126, 174;
at Ascendant Elevator, inability to realize, 136;
command economy of 1950s-70s and, 7, 30, 59;
danwei system and, 30, 38, 60;
definition of, 19–20;
enterprise-level unions and potential for, 88;
of global capitalism, China and prospects for, 17;
in Guangdong, impediments to, 123–24;
at Hitachi Elevator, 85–86, 87;
impact on capital and state, 134;
and incorporation of labor, 21;
and institutional moment of countermovement, 19, 134, 162;
obstacles to, 20, 26, 123–29, 174;
oligarchic, 93, 107, 123–24, 130;
Polanyi’s conception of, 3, 18, 20;
recent state policies of, 3, 6, 7;
worker insurgency and pursuit of, 61–62;
in Zhejiang, 92–93, 107, 123, 125–29
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan, 167
Deng Xiaoping:
at ACFTU 1978 congress, 44;
economic policies of, 2, 101;
four basic principles of, 183n9
Deng Zhongxia, 34, 35
Denso strike, 148–50
“dispatch” labor:
Labor Contract Law of 2008 and, 8, 175, 181n4. See also temp workers
double movement, Polanyi’s theory of, 6, 18, 133. See also countermovement
(p.209) East Asia, labor politics in, 16–17, 28, 166–69
Eastern Europe, postsocialist labor politics in, 16, 172
economic development, Chinese:
foreign direct investment and, 94–95;
under Hu Jintao, 2, 21;
models of, and labor politics, 27, 93, 95–96, 123, 129, 164–65;
unions’ focus on, 26, 42–43, 47, 66–67, 70–71, 164;
Zhejiang model of, 95–96, 98, 99–103
education:
changes in provision of, 8–9, 10f;
migrant workers’ exclusion from, 9, 14
employee turnover:
in Rui’an eyeglass industry, 110–11, 117–18;
sectoral wage agreements and reduction in, 109, 113;
in Wenling wool industry, 108
employer associations:
crisis of legitimacy, 126–27;
in Guangzhou, 118;
nationally organized, 105;
political implications of, 106;
and sectoral-level collective bargaining, 108, 111, 112, 123;
in Zhejiang, 104–7, 108, 110, 111–12
enterprise-level unions, 57;
activist chairs of, 88–89;
at Ascendant Elevator, 137–38, 139;
autonomy for, attempts to win, 71–74, 77;
criticism of, 139, 151;
and decommodification/incorporation of labor, 88;
at Denso plant, 149, 150;
management’s control over, 57–59, 71–72;
at Nanhai Honda, 143–44, 154–56;
reactive stance of, 153;
in Rui’an eyeglass sector, 113;
weakness of, 5, 96, 163, 165
Esping-Andersen, Gosta, 20
Evans, Peter, 17, 175
expanded radicalism scenario, 178
family-style firms:
in Rui’an, 110;
in Wenzhou, 100, 102, 103
Federation of Korean Trade Unions (FKTU), 167
foreign capital:
difficulty in organizing, 124;
and nonenforcement of labor laws, 128
foreign direct investment (FDI):
China’s opening to, impact on Asian Tigers, 169–70;
and Chinese economic development, 94–95;
development model independent of, 98;
and labor politics, 95;
in Pearl River Delta, 95, 96–97, 124;
in Zhejiang, 96, 98t, 105–6
Frazier, Mark, 11
Gao Haitao, 70, 185n29
Gao Yuan, 43
global economy:
Chinese labor politics and impact on, 17–18, 172–79;
impact on labor politics, 164;
and labor solidarity, possibility for, 175–76
grassroots activism:
unions’ response to, 89. See also independent worker organizations
grassroots (jiceng) unions. See enterprise-level unions
Great Depression, 174
The Great Transformation (Polanyi), 3
Guangdong, 61;
foreign direct investment in, 96, 97;
industrial manufacturing in, 31;
labor activism in 1920s, 31, 32–33, 36;
location of, 94f;
oligarchic decommodification in, impediments to, 123–24;
sectoral-level collective bargaining in, 104, 104t, 124, 165;
worker resistance in, 62;
Zhejiang compared to, 92, 93, 96, 98, 103–4, 104t, 113, 122–24, 125, 129
Guangdong Federation of Trade Unions (GDFTU):
and Guangdong Union Hotel, 29, 63, 82, 84;
Nanhai Honda strike and, 144;
passive repressive response of, 85;
strike wave of 2010 and, 151
Guangdong Union Hotel, 29, 81, 82–85, 88–89;
media coverage of, 84–85;
union chair at, 63, 82
Guangzhou:
capital of, 61;
Chiang Kai-shek’s coup in, 36–37;
construction worker union in, 118–19;
decommodification/incorporation of labor in, likelihood of, 63;
foreign direct investment in, 97;
minimum wage in, 71;
oligarchic decommodification in, impediments to, 123–24;
proposed labor legislation in (2010), 152;
sanitation workers in, 119–21;
sectoral unions in, 118–19, 122;
worker unrest in, 4, 90, 120–21
Guangzhou Federation of Trade Unions (GZFTU), 27, 61, 71–74;
Ascendant Elevator and, 135–36, 138;
chair of, 62, 63;
and collective negotiations, 73;
gaining access to, 25;
and Guangdong Union Hotel, 88–89;
and international union exchanges, 68;
Nanhai Honda strike and, 144;
passive repressive position of, 85, 88, 89;
resistance to bottom-up initiative, 63;
sanitation worker strike and, 120–21;
and sectoral unions, 118–19;
staff members at, profiles of, 69–71;
strike wave of 2010 and, 149–51;
and union reform, 71–74;
on Zhejiang unions, 103
Guangzhou Honda, 141;
union at, 142;
wages at, 153, 156
Guha, Ranajit, 19
Guli Lock Factory strike, 150
Guxiang, migrant worker riot in, 1
(p.210) Gu Zhenghong, 31–32
habitus, concept of, 55
hangye gonghui. See sectoral unions
Hangzhou, 98;
conference on collective negotiation in, 114;
foreign direct investment in, 98t
Harper, Paul, 41
Harvey, David, 170
health care:
changes in provision of, 8, 9f;
and decommodification of labor, 19;
migrant workers’ concern about, 12, 14
Hitachi Elevator (China), 75–76;
dual labor market in, 85–86;
intern workers at, 63, 78–79, 80, 86, 87;
limited decommodification at, 85–86, 87;
union at, 63, 75, 76–81;
union chair at, 76–77
Honda:
production chain in China, 141. See also Nanhai Honda
Hong Kong:
labor politics in, 16, 28;
strikes in (1925), 32–33
hotels, union-owned, 81–82. See also Guangdong Union Hotel
huanwei workers. See sanitation workers
Hu Jintao:
economic policies of, 2, 21;
Youth League and, 53
hukou (household registration) system, 7, 14;
attempts to reform, 3;
migrant workers’ desire to participate in, 12;
nonlocal, 14
Hundred Flowers Movement, 43–44
Hung, Ho-fung, 173
Hu-Wen, 3–4
Hyundai Automobile strike, 150
imperialism. See anti-imperialism
incorporation of labor, 17, 20, 162;
appropriated representation as impediment to, 26, 126;
conditions for, determining, 23;
danwei system and, 30;
decommodification and, 21;
enterprise-level unions and, 88;
at Hitachi Elevator, 85, 86;
importance of, 129;
lack of, in Zhejiang, 93;
at Nanhai Honda vs. Ascendant Elevator, 158;
as potential solution to systemic crisis in China, 173;
reconfiguration of concept of, 20–21;
worker insurgency and pursuit of, 61–62
independent worker organizations:
ACFTU and, 46, 47;
formation in 1989, 45–46;
function of, 162
industrial unions, system of, 56
institutional moment of countermovement, 6, 18–21, 22f, 134, 162;
ACFTU and task of realizing, 162;
decommodification and, 19, 134, 162;
emerging traces of, 90–91, 160;
factors affecting prospects for, 26, 132;
generalizability of concept, 163;
global economy and, 175–76;
Guangdong and likelihood of, 61;
GZFTU and likelihood of, 73, 74;
political aspect of, 6, 20;
as potential solution to systemic crisis in China, 173;
stalling of transition from insurgent moment to, 21–22, 92, 132, 134;
union oligarchy as barrier to, 88–89, 92, 132, 158;
in Zhejiang, 129
insurgency trap, 5–6, 131, 134, 161–62, 176;
and expanded radicalism scenario, 178;
particular application to China, 163;
persistence of, 177;
possible development in Vietnam, 168;
vs. “trapped transition,” 181n8
insurgent moment of countermovement, 6, 18–19, 22f, 134, 162;
generalizability of concept, 163;
institutional response to, 62;
stalling at, 21–22, 92, 132, 134
intern workers (shixisheng):
at Hitachi Elevator, 63, 78–79, 80, 86, 87;
at Nanhai Honda, 148. See also temp workers
Japanese Cotton Mills Union, 31–32
Jiang Lingquan, 83, 84
Jiangsu:
economic development in, 96;
worker resistance in, 62
Jiang Zemin, 2
jiceng (grassroots) unions. See enterprise-level unions
joint ventures:
in automobile industry, 141, 153, 156;
conditions for workers at, 87, 153, 156;
in eyeglass industry, 106
Keynesianism, 174
KMT:
right wing of, attacks on Communists, 30, 36–37;
and Taiwanese labor politics, 167, 169
Kohli, Atul, 123
Kong Xianghong, 84, 144, 151, 156
Koo, Hagen, 13
Labor Contract Law of 2008, 3, 8, 13;
ACFTU and, 49, 53;
as administrative response to social problems, 130;
contradictory effects of, 181n4
Labor Law of 1994, 7, 49
labor politics:
Chinese, and global economy, 17–18, 172–79;
colonial experience and, 15, 33–36, 59–60;
comparative perspective on, 16–17, 166–72;
factors influencing, 163–64;
foreign direct investment and, 95;
postsocialist, 5–6, 16, 17, 48, 60, 172;
(p.211) regional models of development and, 27, 93, 95–96, 123;
under second-wave marketization, 17
labor unions. See unions
labor unrest:
in postsocialist China vs. Eastern Europe, 16. See also worker insurgency
Lai Ruoyu, 43, 44
Latin American countries, working class in, 23
Lau, Raymond, 55
law:
workers' sense of fidelity to, 160. See also legislation, prolabor
leadership, of employer associations, 105
leadership, union:
autonomy for, attempts to win, 90;
constraints on, 89, 91;
government officials compared to, 55;
impact of, 27, 62;
joint appointments of, 54, 64;
management’s control over, 58–59, 90;
Party control over, 53–54;
selection of, 64, 69
Lee, Ching Kwan, 13, 19, 134, 166, 181n10, 182n21
legislation, prolabor:
nonenforcement of, 5, 20, 128, 131, 175;
after strike wave of 2010, 152;
unions’ focus on, 48–49, 50f, 50t, 53, 128, 163
Li, Lianjiang, 134
Li, Minqi, 173
Li Chunbo, 152
Li Lisan, 36, 38–42
Lin Biao, 44
Lipset, Seymour, 24
Liu, Mingwei, 69
Liu, Yia-Ling, 99
Liu Hua, 32
Liu Shaoqi, 36
Liu Xiaogang, 72, 120–21
Liu Yongyi, 63, 82–85, 88–89
local state:
and capital, alliance between, 5, 126, 131, 132, 138–39, 161, 175;
vs. central and provincial government, in Nanhai Honda strike, 132, 133;
support from, in Wenzhou Model, 100–101;
support from, in Zhejiang collective wage negotiations, 109, 114, 126–27
management:
government support for, 138–39;
ignorance about collective wage agreements, 115–16;
social integration with workers, in Wenzhou firms, 100;
unions’ relationship to, 57–59, 71–72, 90
Mao era:
state corporatism during, 23;
unions during, 59;
Wenzhou in, 99
Mao Zedong:
and principle of “benefiting labor and capital,” 39;
rural strategy of, 37
marketization:
of education, 8–9;
of health care, 8;
historical waves of, 15–16;
introduction of, 7, 44;
of pensions, 10;
retreat from, 2, 3;
unions’ response to, 48;
unions’ role in, 44
Marx, Karl, 15, 182n21
mass organizations, unions as, 52
media:
on Ascendant Elevator strike, 136, 139;
on Guangdong Union Hotel, 84–85;
on Nanhai Honda strike, 148
Michels, Robert, 23
migrant workers, 3, 14;
ACFTU recognition of, 48, 51;
appropriated representation of, 22, 51;
concerns of, 12;
emergence as new social class, 12, 22, 27, 48, 162, 183n23;
exclusion from social welfare, 9, 11–12, 12t, 14;
and labor unrest, 1, 14, 19;
laissez faire labor market and, 7;
number of, 14;
relative wages of, 5;
relocation of capital to China’s interior and, 171–72;
scholarship on, 12–13;
violence against, 1–2. See also worker insurgency
Nanhai Honda, 86, 141–42, 189n12;
Ascendant Elevator compared to, 135, 141, 156–60;
collective wage negotiations at, 156, 158;
condition of workers at, 87;
dual labor market at, 135, 148, 157;
enterprise-level union at, 143–44, 154–56;
media coverage of strike at, 148;
older patterns of resistance at, 159–60;
outcome of strike at, 133, 141, 148, 153–56, 157, 158;
political fallout from, 150–53;
regional unions’ response to strike at, 144–45, 159, 160;
strike at, 132, 142–48, 159, 165;
strike at, factors responsible for success of, 159, 160;
and strike wave of 2010, 148–49;
township-level union’s response to strike at, 145–47, 159
national interests, vs. working-class interests, 15, 63
neoliberal capitalism, 15, 16, 170
New Deal, 18, 182n21
NGOs, labor, 191n4
Ningbo, 98
nonenforcement:
of collective agreements, 5, 20, 115–18, 125, 126–29, 174;
of labor laws, 5, 20, 128, 131, 175
nongmingong (peasant workers), 51. See also migrant workers
O’Brien, Kevin, 134
oligarchic decommodification, 93, 130;
impediments to, in Guangdong, 123–24;
Zhejiang’s attempt at, 107, 123;
factors responsible for failure of, 125–29
(p.212) outsourcing:
to China, impact on Asian Tigers, 169–70, 170f;
to China’s interior, impact on migrant workers, 171–72;
Labor Contract Law of 2008 and, 8
Pan Shengshen, 87
Park Chung-hee, 168
Pearl River Delta:
capitalists in, characteristics of, 106;
employer associations in, 105;
foreign direct investment in, 95, 96–97, 124;
labor conflict in 2008 and 2009, 159;
obstacles to sectoral-level collective bargaining in, 124
peasant workers (nongmingong), 51. See also migrant workers
Pei, Minxin, 181n8
pensions:
and decommodification of labor, 19;
migrant workers’ exclusion from, 14;
reform-era changes in, 9–11, 11f
Polanyi, Karl, 18;
on decommodification, 3, 18, 20;
theory of double movement/countermovement, 6, 17, 18, 133;
on worker insurgency, 182n21
postsocialism:
in China vs. Eastern Europe, 16, 172;
Chinese unions in era of, 48–52;
labor politics under conditions of, 5–6, 16, 17, 48, 60, 172
Pringle, Tim, 128
production, increased, unions’ focus on, 26, 42–43, 47, 66–67, 70–71, 164
public sector. See state-owned enterprises
Pun Ngai, 13
reform:
in response to worker insurgency, 177–78. See also union reform
regional federations, in union hierarchy, 56
representation:
contestation over, 165, 166, 174. See also appropriated representation
revolutionary agenda, lack of, as impediment to class compromise, 174
revolutionary years, unions in, 30–38
rightful resistance, 134
Rui’an, 110;
development model and labor politics in, 129
Rui’an Eyeglass Employer Association, 106, 110, 111–12, 117, 126–27
Rui’an eyeglass industry, 110–11;
decommodification/incorporation of labor in, questioning of, 124–25, 128;
employee turnover in, 110–11, 117–18;
nonenforcement of sectoral-level wage agreements in, 115–18, 125, 126–29;
sectoral-level collective bargaining in, 111–13, 115
Rui’an Eyeglass Union, 93, 107, 110;
appropriated representation by, 126;
establishment of, 112
Rui’an Federation of Trade Unions (RAFTU), 112
Russia, postsocialist experience in, 16, 172
sanitation (huanwei) workers, in Guangzhou, 119–21;
strikes among, 90, 120–21
second-wave marketization:
anti-imperialism and response to, 15;
and corporatism, 23;
labor politics under, 17
sectoral-level collective bargaining:
benefits to employers, 109, 113;
employer associations and, 108, 111, 112, 123;
form vs. substance of, 127, 131;
government support for, 114;
in Guangdong, 104, 104t, 124, 165;
nonenforcement of agreements, 115–18, 125, 126–29, 174;
obstacles to, 124;
oligarchic decommodification and, 123;
preconditions for, 123;
regional models of development and, 27, 123, 164–65;
in Rui’an eyeglass industry, 111–13, 115, 125, 126–29;
in Wenling wool industry, 108–10, 125;
in Zhejiang, 27, 92, 96, 103, 104, 104t, 107–14, 122, 123, 130, 165
sectoral unions (hangye gonghui), 56–57, 164, 165;
Chen Weiguang and, 90;
enterprise-level unions compared to, 57;
in Guangzhou, 118–19, 122;
in service industry, 188n60;
in Zhejiang, 107
Shanghai:
industrial manufacturing in, 31;
KMT’s capture of, 37;
labor activism in 1920s, 31–32, 36;
labor unrest in 1957, 43;
as premier port city, 98
Shanghai Federation of Trade Unions (SHFTU):
gaining access to, 25;
hotels owned by, 82;
in revolutionary years, 32, 35–36, 37
shenggang general strike (1925), 29, 32, 33–34, 35, 36
Shishan Township Federation of Trade Unions, 145–47
shixisheng. See intern workers
Silver, Beverly, 172–73, 182n21
Singapore, labor politics in, 16, 28
Smith, S. A., 33
social movement, characteristics of, 19, 182n19
social stability, unions’ focus on, 131, 153, 159
social welfare:
migrant workers’ exclusion from, 9, 11–12, 12t, 14. See also danwei system
(p.213) SOEs. See state-owned enterprises
Solinger, Dorothy, 13
South Korea:
labor politics in, 16, 28, 166–68, 169;
manufacturing job losses in, 169–70, 170f
Soviet Union, former, labor politics in, 16, 172
special economic zones (SEZs), 61, 101
staff and workers’ congress (zhidaihui), 113, 137, 138
stalemate scenario, 177
state:
fear of social instability, 131;
levels of, response to worker insurgency, 13, 133–35;
reform of, in response to worker insurgency, 177–78;
unions’ reliance on, 125–26. See also central government; local state
state-owned enterprises (SOEs):
conditions for workers at, 86;
and employer associations, 105;
privatization of, impact of, 10;
privatization of, unions’ response to, 48;
role of, 3;
staff and workers’ congress (zhidaihui) in, 113
Stern, Andy, 68
strikes:
at Ascendant Elevator, 132, 133, 137–40, 157, 158;
Chen Weiguang’s view of, 67–68;
of Guangzhou sanitation workers, 90, 120–21;
legalization of, movement toward, 165–66;
at Nanhai Honda, 132, 133, 141, 142–48, 153–56, 157, 158, 159, 165;
shenggang (1925), 29, 32, 33–34, 35, 36, 59;
union officers’ response to, 55;
in Vietnam, 168. See also worker insurgency
strike wave of 2010, 148–50;
and collective negotiation, 74;
older patterns of resistance in, 159–60;
political response to, 150–53, 154–55;
unions’ response to, 28;
unique features of, 132–33, 159
Sun Chunlan, 114
Taiwan:
labor politics in, 16, 28, 166–67, 168, 169;
manufacturing job losses in, 169–70, 170f
Taizhou:
development model in, 108;
foreign direct investment in, 98t
Taizhou Federation of Trade Unions, 127
Tan Guocheng (pseudonym), 142, 143, 189n17
temp workers:
at Ascendant Elevator, 139–40;
at Hitachi Elevator, 63, 78–79, 80, 86, 87;
at Nanhai Honda, 135, 148, 157
Tiananmen Square protests (1989), 45, 46
Tianhe District Retail Sector Union Federation, 90
Trade Union Law, 49;
article 27 of, 55;
violations of, 89
Trust-mart, 90
turnover. See employee turnover
underconsumption problem, 173
union(s):
neoliberal wave of marketization and, 15;
in South Korea, 167–68;
in Taiwan, 167
union(s), Chinese:
access to state power, 53, 75;
anti-imperialism and, 15, 33–36, 59–60;
autonomy for, attempts to win, 41, 71–74, 77, 90;
cadre recruitment by, 54–55;
commercial activities of, 81–82, 83f;
Communist Party and, 31, 38, 42, 45, 46–47, 48, 52–55, 56, 58f, 59, 60, 67, 163–64;
contradictory policies of, 91;
crisis of legitimacy of, 5, 127;
dual control of, 52, 56;
economic development models and activities of, 27, 93, 95–96, 123, 129;
fear of social instability, 131;
financing of, 58;
gaining access to, 25;
greater assertiveness in 2000s, 3;
legislative focus of, 48–49, 50f, 50t, 53, 128, 163;
lower levels of, criticism of, 139, 151;
management’s control over, 57–59, 71–72, 90;
and migrant workers, 24;
organizational logic of, 30;
paradox of, 5;
passive repressive response of, 85, 88, 89;
postrevolutionary, 38;
in postsocialist era, 48–52;
primary goals of, 42–43, 47, 66–67, 70–71, 164;
purging by KMT, 37;
reactive stance of, 136–37, 153, 165;
in reform era, 44–48;
in revolutionary years, 30–38;
role in danwei system, 16;
sectoral (hangye gonghui), 56–57, 164, 165;
state support for, reliance on, 125–26;
status of, 74–75;
as strikebreakers, 145–47;
structural deficiencies of, 129;
structure of, 52–59, 58f;
worker insurgency and impact on, 5, 22–23, 75, 163;
worker insurgency and response of, 6, 27–28, 62, 145–51, 159, 165–66. See also enterprise-level unions; leadership; union oligarchy; union reform; specific unions
union oligarchy, 23–24;
as barrier to institutional moment of countermovement, 88–89, 92, 132, 158
union reform, calls for:
Chen Weiguang’s, 65–66, 152, 153;
after strike wave of 2010, 152–53, 154–55, 159
urban workers:
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and, 30–31;
resistance among, 14–15
Vietnam, labor politics in, 16, 168, 169
Vietnam General Confederation of Labor (VGCL), 168
violence, against migrant workers, 1–2
(p.214) wages:
decrease in, at Ascendant Elevator, 157;
increase in, and decommodification of labor, 19;
increase in, worker insurgency and, 148, 153, 157, 163;
of migrant workers, 5
Walmart campaign of 2006, 3, 70
Wang Honggang, 90
Wang Shaoguang, 3, 7, 133
Wang Yang, 144
Wang Yupu, 54
Wang Zhaoguo, 51, 54, 65
Weber, Max, 22, 62, 184n4
Wei Jianxing, 69
Wen Jiabao, 109, 124
Wenling, development model and labor politics in, 129
Wenling Federation of Trade Unions, 108
Wenling Model, 109–10, 124
Wenling wool industry:
decommodification/incorporation of labor in, questioning of, 124–25;
nonenforcement of sectoral-level wage agreements in, 127–28;
sectoral-level wage agreements in, 108–10, 125;
turnover rates and conflict in, 108
Wenling Wool Knitwear Union, 93, 107;
establishment of, 108;
national recognition of, 109;
state support and, 126
Wenzhou:
desire for reintegration in, 103;
employer associations in, 104, 105;
foreign direct investment in, 98t;
in Mao era, 99;
in reform era, 101–3
Wenzhou Model, 98, 99–103;
criticism of, 101;
employment relations in, 100, 102, 103;
spread of, 108, 110;
support from local state in, 100–101
Women’s Federation, 52
Wool Textiles Employer Association, 108
worker insurgency, 19;
ACFTU response to, 6, 45–46, 138, 151;
appropriated representation and, 22–23;
cellular nature of, 13, 133, 160;
commodification and, 12, 13;
Communist Party’s response to, 151–52;
and decommodification, pursuit of, 61–62;
failure to secure class compromise and, 176;
in Guangdong, 62, 122;
in Guangzhou, 4, 90, 120–21;
lack of formal political demands in, 175;
migrant workers and, 1, 14, 19;
passive repressive approach to, 27;
persistence of, 18;
“Polanyi-type” vs. “Marx-type,” 182n21;
as political challenge to regime, 13;
possible scenarios in response to, 176–79;
projections for, 176;
rise in, 1, 3–4, 4f, 161, 185n25;
sectoral collective wage agreements and reduction in, 109, 113;
vs. social movement, 19;
state’s response to, 13, 133–35;
and transition from insurgent moment to institutional moment of countermovement, 132;
unions’ failure to prevent, 120;
unions’ response to, 6, 27–28, 62, 145–51, 159, 165–66;
and union status, 5, 22–23, 75, 163;
urban workers and, 14–15;
wage increases in response to, 148, 153, 157, 163;
in Zhejiang, 122. See also strikes
working class:
migrants as future of, 14. See also migrant workers; urban workers
working-class interests, 62–63;
Chen Weiguang’s support for, 66–67;
vs. national interests, 15, 63
Wright, Eric Olin, 176
Wright, Teresa, 189n2
Wu Youhe, 143, 155
Wu Zhaoquan, 84
Wuzhou Movement, 32
Xie Xijian, 138
Xiong Hanjiang, 1, 2
Xu Deming, 54
Youth League, 52, 53
Zengcheng, worker unrest in, 4
Zeng Qinghong (Guangzhou Automotive CEO), 148, 149, 152
Zeng Qinghong (vice president of China), 151–52
Zhao Ruizhou, 73
Zhao Xiaosui, 90
Zhao Ziyang, 46, 101
Zhejiang:
applicability of experience to other regions, 124;
decommodification in, 92–93, 107, 123;
development model and labor politics in, 95–96, 98;
economic success of, 96;
employer associations in, 104–7, 108, 110, 111–12;
foreign direct investment in, 96, 98t, 105–6;
Guangdong compared to, 92, 93, 96, 98, 103–4, 104t, 113, 122–24, 125, 129;
institutional moment of countermovement in, 129;
labor relations in, 103–18, 122–23;
local entrepreneurialism in, rise of, 99–101;
location of, 94f;
regions within, 97–98, 97f;
sectoral-level collective bargaining in, 27, 92, 96, 103, 104, 104t, 107–14, 122, 123, 130, 165;
Wenzhou Model in, 98, 99–103
Zhilian Eyeglasses, 116
Zhu, Ying, 128