This chapter examines the Yugoslav legacies that strengthened nationalism in Kosovo and Serbia as well as the parallel institutions that developed during the anti-Milošević resistance movement. Contrary to popular perceptions, the Ottoman and Yugoslav legacies supported the construction of nationalist identities in Kosovo. However, ethnicity or nationality was not fixed, but fluid, throughout most of Kosovo's history. Clientelist practices relied on even more particularistic identities than national ones, because the social network was made up of friends, kin, and political parties. In addition to institutional legacies, political actors made choices that shaped political outcomes. The abolition of Kosovo's autonomy by Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević and the subsequent Serb repression homogenized the national interests of Albanians, who mobilized in support of their human rights.
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