This conclusion summarizes the book's main findings about the role of knowledge production and policy formation on the Kazak steppes of the Russian Empire. It highlights a strikingly common formulation among Kazak intermediaries of the long nineteenth century: the Kazak steppe and its inhabitants were in a “transitional state.” It shows that for Kazaks, the source of their problems lay in a variety of factors, from moral crisis to a failure of economic modernization, Europeanization, and the spread of a purified, modernist Islam. It also considers how mass peasant resettlement became the essential condition of tsarist policy on the steppe and how rapid resettlement affected Kazaks. Finally, it examines how bureaucrats and intermediaries who could envision many transitional states combined local and metropolitan knowledge in idiosyncratic ways to advance their views.
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