This concluding chapter reiterates that the transformation of military service from an aspect of social status to a national obligation was the product of a forty-year process of change that ended the sociomilitary order of the Tokugawa period and brought about the establishment of a modern conscript army. This process began in the latter decades of the Tokugawa period as both central and regional authorities attempted to adopt a new military technology—Takashima-ryū musketry—in order to meet the challenge of encroaching empires. The masters of this self-proclaimed “Western-style” school rose to countrywide prominence in the 1840s and soon found themselves playing a leading role in both shogunal and domainal military reforms.
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