This concluding chapter argues that lived religion and individual appropriations are identifiable at the heart of rituals like praying, vowing, dedicating, and reading. It then assesses how different authors reflect on individual appropriation of religion among their contemporaries. Whereas Propertius remains in the role of the distant observer of a traditional religious role, and Ovid follows him in this, Hermas urgently pursues distribution and thereby opens up new religious roles for his recipients. For him, religious individuality has become crucial. A very old explanation for this exists: the classification of Hermas as a Christian. Neither the causes of Hermas's religious individuality nor its consequences are restricted to what are later claimed as features of a Christian genealogy: being a Jew, a Roman, a businessman, and a citizen of the Roman Empire.
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