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Invisible WeaponsLiturgy and the Making of Crusade Ideology$

M. Cecilia Gaposchkin

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9781501705151

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9781501705151.001.0001

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(p.309) Appendix 3 Timeline of Nonliturgical Evidence for Liturgical Supplications

(p.309) Appendix 3 Timeline of Nonliturgical Evidence for Liturgical Supplications

Source:
Invisible Weapons
Author(s):

M. Cecilia Gaposchkin

Publisher:
Cornell University Press

The following is a summary of evidence that I know of from chronicles, letters, and other sources (but excluding the liturgical manuscripts themselves) showing requests or prescriptions for liturgical services to be said for crusades or crusaders. Although much of this was documented in footnotes in Christoph Maier’s “Crisis, Liturgy, and the Crusade” and Amnon Linder’s Raising Arms, I hope compiled in this way it tells its own story. This is surely far from exhaustive and more evidence is certain to be found.

1187, 29 October.

Following the defeat at Hattin to Saladin, Pope Gregory VIII calls Third Crusade. Issuing Audita tremendi, centered on Psalm 78.

PL 202:1539–1542. MGH SS rerum germanicarum ns. 5:6–10

1187.

In Nunquam melius superni, Gregory VIII issues instructions for fasting and a special mass following the defeat at Hattin.

Roger of Hovendon, Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, II:329–330.

PL 202:1539.

1188.

A chronicler reports that Henry of Albano, in order to avenge the destruction of Jerusalem, instituted that “public prayers ordered by Pope Gregory VIII be observed throughout the entire church.”

Chronica Andrensis. MGH SS 24:719.

1188.

Clement III issues clamor, attached to Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78), known from London, and other chroniclers. Original instructions do not survive, but were linked by Roger of Hoveden to the Omnipotens sempiterne Deus collect (CO 3846, from the contra paganos mass).

Roger of Hoveden, Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, II:359–360.

Conrad of Scheyern, Annales, MGH SS 17:630.

Arnold of Lübeck, Chronica Slavorum, MGH SS 21:169–170.

1189–1192: The Third Crusade.

1190.

Cistercians institute the weekly recitation the mass for the Holy Spirit for the kings and princes and other crusaders (cruce signatis). Any pilgrim who dies on the crusade will be included in the daily mass for the dead.

(p.310) Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 1:122 (no. 16)

1191.

Guillaume of Reims, Queen Adela, and bishops order that the relics of Denis, Rusticus, and Eleutherius be placed on the altar in Saint Denis and prayers be said “for the deliverance of the Holy Land, for the health of the king of France and all his army.”

Rigord, Histoire de Philippe Auguste, ch. 87 (pp. 300–303)

1194.

Cistercian General Statutes issue Oratio pro terra Ierosolimitana, including the Deus venerunt gentes Psalm (Ps. 78), the collect Deus a quo sancta desideria (CO 1088, from pro pace rites), and for masses for the dead, the Deus qui corda collect (from mass for the Holy Spirit).

Waddell, Twelfth-Century Statutes from the Cistercian General Chapter (Brecht, Belgium: 2002), 286–287.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, I:172 (item 10).

(p.311) 1195.

Cistercians expand Holy Land prayers Pro tribulatione terrae sanctae and include also Saracen invasions in Spain, and prayers for peace, for the pope, and for the kings of France and England; prescribe a procession every Friday in which the community chants the seven penitential psalms with the litany, the Lord’s Prayer, vesicles (Exurgat Deus, Salvum fac populum, fiat pax, etc) and response, and the collects Ecclesie tue (CO 2404b, from the mass contra adversarios ecclesiae) and Deus a quo (CO 1088). Monks are to take weekly discipline. Daily clamor of Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78) as before, but including the Omnipotens sempiterne Deus collect (CO 3846).

Waddell, Twelfth-Century Statutes from the Cistercian General Chapter (Brecht, Belgium: 2002), 306–307.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 1:181–182 (item 1)

1195, 25 July.

Celestine III writes to clergy of Canterbury, asking for prayers.Radulfus de Diceto, Opera Historica, ed. W. Stubbs, vol. 2 (RS 68), 134.

1196.

Cistercians reissue the pro terra Ierosolimitana statutes.

Waddell, Twelfth-Century Statutes from the Cistercian General Chapter (Brecht, Belgium: 2002), 372–373.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 1:208 (no. 57).

1197.

Cistercians reissue the Pro terra Ierusalem statutes.

Waddell, Twelfth-Century Statutes from the Cistercian General Chapter (Brecht, Belgium: 2002), 379.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 1:210 (item 2).

1199, 5 January.

Innocent III asks the church in Sicily to perform Pro tribulatione votive masses for crusaders.

PL 214:470.

Hageneder et al., Das Register Innocenz’ III, vol. 1, no. 508 (1:741–743).

1199, 31 December.

Innocent III, in general letter, asks that “in all churches mass should be publicly celebrated once a week for the remission of sins, and especially for those making offerings.” et al., Das Register Innocenz ’ III, vol. 2, no. 258 (490–497, at 495) and no. 259 (497–501, at p. 500).

1203.

In England, mention of a statute indicating weekly processions and specialprayers to be said in the daily mass, and fasting Propterea pro terra Ierosolimitana, for the peace of the kingdom and the church, and for goodweather and the fecundity of the earth.Durham, Cathedral Library MS C.iv. 24, fol. 191r, edited in C.R.Cheney, “Levies on the English Clergy for the Poor and for the King, 1203” in English Historical Review 96 (1981) 583–584.

~1204.

Innocent III, in a letter to the bishops and archbishops of France, instructs that “Psalm 78 (Deus venerunt gentes), with the usual prayer, be said,” along with the collection of alms. Gesta Innocentii, PL 214:134.

1202–1204: The Fourth Crusade. Army diverted to Constantinople.

1209–1229: Albigensian Crusade.

1212, May.

Innocent III calls supplicatio generalis and presides over a public procession in Rome in order to supplicate God on behalf of the Christian army in Spain. Included use of Omnipotens sempiterne Deus collect (CO 3846).

Innocentii III Romani Pontificis Regestorum, PL 216:698–699.

1212, July Almohads 16. Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Christian forces defeat the in Almohads in Spain.

1212: Children’s crusade.

1212.

Innocent III sends Philip of Oxford, Leo of Wells, and William of London to preach the cross and collect money “per singulas ecclesias statuentes.” Annales prioratus de Dunstaplia. Henry Richards Luard, ed., Annales Monastici (RS 36) 3:40.

1212, spring.

Processions and prayers done by Christians in France for those who are leaving to fight in Spain.

Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, Chronica, MGH SS 23:894.

1213.

Innocent III issues Quia Maior, the bull calling the Fifth Crusade, instituting special services, Deus venerunt gentes Psalm (Ps. 78), the (new) Deus admirabili collect, a procession, a sermon, and collection. The promulgation of these supplications is recorded by a number of contemporary and latterly compiled chronicles.

PL 216:817–821.

Flores Temporum, MGH SS 24:240;

Die Chronik Johanns von Winterthur. MGH SS Rerum Germanicarum, ns. 3:2.

Monumenta Erphesfurtensia, MGH SS rerum Germanicarum 42:648–649.

Chronica Reinhardsbrunnenses, ed. Holder Egger, MGH SS 30.i:588.

~1213.

A supplement to a copy of the synodal statutes of Eudes de Sully (d. 1208) includes a list of prayers, including pro terra Jerosoli[mi]tana et Constanti[no]politanta, pro christianitate de Albigeis.

(p.312) Les statuts synodaux français du XIIIe siècle, 1:96.

1214, after 12 February.

Oliver of Paderborn preaches the cross in the region around Lieges and is directed to organize processions, masses, and alms for the aid of the Holy Land.

Reiner of Saint Jacob. Ex reineri ad sanctum Jacobum monachi chronico Leodiensi, RHF 18:630–632.

Reineri annales, MGH SS 16:671.

1215, 21 August.

Frederick II, having taken the cross, writes to the Cistercian General Chapter requesting prayers be said on his behalf.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 1:432. Eduoard Winkelmann, Acta imperii inedita saeculi XIII (Innsbruck: 1880), 110–111 (no. 131).

1217–1219: The Fifth Crusade.

1217, 24 November.

Honorius III writes to Archbishop Aubrey of Reims asking for prayers and processions to aid Andrew of Hungary and Leopold of Austria in the Holy Land, offering explication of the efficacy of penitential processions, and participates in a supplicatory procession in Rome with the heads of Peter and Paul.

RHF v. 19:639–640.

Regestra Honorii Papae III, ed. Presutti (Rome: 1888), 149–150, no. 885.

1219, spring.

Jacques de Vitry tells of the army outside Damietta doing processions, prayers, and litanies. The people are urged to clamor to God.

Lettres de Jacques de Vitry, ed. R. B. C. Huygens (Leiden: 1960), 117.

1223 (or a little after).

Carthusian chapter statutes indicates the use of an expanded clamor. “Tres orationes cum psalmo Deus venerunt gentes dicantur [Ps. 78], scilicet: Deus qui ad nostrae redemptionis exhibenda mysteria, Eccelsiae tuae et Deus a quo sancta desideria [CO 1088].

Preces vero sunt: Exurgat Deus, non nobis domine, exurge Domine, adjuva nos, et Domine exaudi.”

Carolo LeCouteulx, Annales ordinis Cartusiensis ab anno 1084 ad annum 1429, 6 vols., Monstroli Typis Cartusiae S. Mariae de Pratis, 1887–1891, 3:392.

1224, 7 March.

Honorius III, in a letter sent to various bishops and abbots, orders monthly processions and reissues the daily Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78) clamor “for the aid of the Holy Land,” in support of the crusade army arrived in Damietta.

Ex Honorii III Registro, in MGH Epistolae saeculi XIII I:173 (no. 244).

1225.

Honorius III orders the Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78) clamor along withthe usual prayers daily except Sunday and feast days, and a monthly procession of men and women, “so that Merciful God might deign to liberate the land in which He effected the universal sacrament of our redemption from the hands of pagans.”

Chronicle of Richard of Saint Germano. In Augusto Gaudenzi, IgnotiMonachi Cisterciensis (Naples: 1888), 120–121.

(p.313) 1226, March.

Chronicle reports that Honorius III sent out preachers “to all provinces” to preach the crusade, orders the Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78) clamor to be said in all masses except solemn and Sunday masses, and orders general processions to be performed monthly. Chronico sancti Martini Turonensi, MGH Scriptores 26:472.

Leroquais, bréviaires, 1:cxiv (for Rouen).

1226.

Sermon preached by Philip the Chancellor in 1226 in Paris, given on the occasion of a “procession in support of Louis VIII and the crusaders, who were at that time besieging Avignon.”

Avranches BM ms. 132, fol. 243a. Cited in:Christoph Maier, “Crisis, Liturgy, and the Crusade,” 652, citingAvranches BM ms. 132, fol. 243a.

Nicole Bériou, Nicole. “La prédication de croisade de Philippe le Chancelier et d’Eudes de Châteauroux en 1226.” Cahiers de Fanjeaux 32 (1997): 102.

1226.

Odo of Chateauroux preaches a sermon for the Albigensian crusade, in which he alludes to special liturgy and processions.

Arras BM ms 137, fols 88v–90r. Cited in:Christoph Maier, “Crisis, Liturgy, and the Crusades,” 1997, 640n63.

Nicole Bériou, “La prédication de croisade” (1997), 102–103.

1228.

Cistercians, general council of 1228, institute prayers for the pope, thepeace of the Roman church and empire, for the papal legate, and for the “negotio Albigensium,” including the mass Salus populi.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:69.

1228–1229: Crusade of Emperor Frederick II.

1229.

Statutes from Worcester, prescribing the ringing of church bells so that those not at church might say the Pater Noster pro succursu Terre Sancte. F. M. Powicke and R. C. Cheney, Councils and Synods, with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, 2 in 4 vols. (Oxford: 1964–1981), II.i.175 (item 30).

1229.

Cistercians general council for 1229 reinstitute prayers pro omnibus certantibus et laborantibus pro fide christiana, including Aspice Domine, the antiphon Salve Regina, the seven penitential psalms, the discipline, and the mass Salus populi.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:78

1231.

Cistercians end the Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78) clamor.

1234.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:94Petition for masses made by the bishop of Agen for, among other things the “land of Albigensians.”

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:129.

1239–1241: The Barons Crusade.

1239.

Cistercians institute prayers in support of the Duke of Burgundy and all who are signed by the cross pro negotio Constantinopolitano.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:201 Item 3).

1240.

Cistercians at general council establish a votive mass for the Holy Spirit for the king of France, Louis IX, Blanche of Castille, the [royal] family, “and for the Albigensian work.” (p.314) Canivez,Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:219.

1241–1242: Gregory IX sanctions minor crusade indulgences for the defense of Hungary following Mongol advances in Russia and Poland.

1241.

Councils at Mainz and Cologne institute throughout the diocese that at every mass, immediately following the Agnus dei, Psalm 78 will be recited, along with the Deus a quo sacra desideria (CO 1088), on behalf of those who take the cross against the Mongols. In addition a weekly procession on Saturdays with the Salus populi prayer (or on Thursday with the Nisi quod redemptor if a feast falls on Saturday). Siegfried, the Archbishop of Mainz, also orders the preaching of the cross.

Historia diplomatica Frederici Secundi, 5/2:1211.

Annales Wormatienses, MGH SS 17:46.

1241.

A letter from Henry of Lorraine to Henry of Brabant indicates that Franciscans and Dominicans have been instructed to preach the cross, and prayers and fasting have been ordered “ad bellum Jesus Christi.”

Matthew Paris, Chronica Majorca, ed. Luard (RS 57) 4:110.

1241, after 10 March.

Prayers, fasting, and alms are instituted in diverse regions “so that God, who, as magnificent victor over His enemy, fights the few as well as the many, being appeased, might destroy the pride of the Tartars.”

Matthew Paris, Chronica Majorca, ed. Luard (RS 57) 4:111.

1241, 29 or 30 November (possible).

Council of Oxford, prescribes supplications against the “ferocity of the Mongols.” The clamor is Psalm 69 and 78, and then the old Omnipotens sempiterne Deus in cuius manu prayer (“as said at Easter,” CO 3846). Also includes special instructions for prayers to be said during the penitential processions, including the Deus tibi proprium, Ecclesie tue (CO 2404b), and Deus a quo sancta desideria (CO 1088), along with the penitential psalms and the litany.

F. M. Powicke and R. C. Cheney, Councils and Synods, with OtherDocuments Relating to the English Church, 2 in 4 vols. (Oxford:1964–1981), II.i.339–340.

Translated C&C 325–327.

Note that there is some chance that these statutes were promulgated notin 1241, but at the Council of Lambeth in 1261, or sometime elseentirely. See Discussion in Powicke and Cheney II.i, 338. The text isfound in a thirteenth-century manuscript.

1244: Louis IX takes the Cross.

1245: Instructed by Eudes of Chateauroux (papal legate), the Cistercians issue new prayers for the pope, the French king who has taken the cross, and for the Holy Land, including Psalm 78, a series of versicles, and an expanded form of Innocent III’s Deus ammirabili. For Cistercians in the kingdom of France several Pro rege versicles are added. This appears to follow the First Council at Lyon under Innocent IV.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:289 (item 2).

(p.315) 1247.

Cistercian general council issues a series of prayers, including one pro omnibus cruce signatis. The collect Ineffabilem (CO 3129, mass in tribulatione) is added to the Salus populi mass.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:315–316 (item 4).

1248.

Franciscan general chapter at Sens. Louis IX asks Franciscans to pray for crusade, with reference to Psalm 78. Salimbene also makes reference to the daily recitation at the conventual mass of Psalm 78 in France, for a year.

Salimbene de Adam, Chronica, ed. Scalia, 1: 317–327, 340.

1248 May.

Dominican general chapter celebrated in Paris during Louis’s preparations for his first crusade promises masses to the Holy Spirit, the Holy Cross, and the Blessed Virgin, as well as a weekly mass for the king.

Layettes du Trésor des Chartes, ed. Laborde, 3:33, no. 3674.

1248–1254: The first crusade of Louis IX. Louis IX is captured by Egyptian forces on 5 May 1250.

1249, 24 September.

Innocent IV writes to Canterbury asking for monthly processions and preaching in the fight against the Tartars and the struggle against Frederick II.

Matthew Paris, Chronica Majorca, ed. Luard (RS 57) 6:174

1250, before 10 August.

After his release from captivity in Egypt, writing from Acre, Louis IX writes a letter to the French asking for people to take the cross to come to his aid in Acre, and for prelates to offer prayers everywhere in their dioceses for the crusade effort.

Duchesne, Historiae Francorum Scriptores, 5:432.

1250, 12 August.

Innocent IV, learning of Louis IX’s capture, writes to Rouen, Normandy (Eudes Rigaud) asking for a general procession for Louis and the preaching of sermons.

Duchesne, Historiae Francorum Scriptores, 5:417.

Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum, 23:599.

1251.

John Baucinus, at the council of Arles, decreed that psalms should be sung to ensure that the expedition Outremer receive divine support, including Psalm 78, and the Deus qui admirabili collect.

Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum, 23:798 (Canon 12).

1252, 29 September.

Innocent IV to the bishops and archbishops of the kingdom of England, institutes prayers (including Psalm 78), solemn masses, general monthly processions, and preaching.

Thomas Rymer, Foedera: conventiones, litterae, 4 vols. (London: 1816–1830), 1641–1713, vol. 1, part 1, p. 286.

1252, 19 October.

Innocent writes two letters to secular and regular ecclesiastics in England asking for processions, litanies, and preaching.

Elie Berger, ed., Les Registres d’Innocent IV, 3 vols., Bibliothèque des Écoles française d’Athènes et de Rome (Rome, 1884–1921), 3:120, nos. 6035 and 6036.

(p.316) 1255, April.

At the council of Cognac, Archbishop Gerald of Bordegal includes prayers in aid of the Holy Land, the Lord King of France, and crusaders, to be said daily in every church “just as ordered by the Lord Legate”; and each week, a Mass for the Holy Spirit, or a Mass for the Blessed Virgin, should be celebrated.

Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum, 23:873 (Canon 30).

1257.

Cistercians reinstitute prayers “that they were in the habit of doing for the Holy Land, for the good of the kingdom of France, and for the entire church in general,” except for Psalm 78 and the collect, which should be omitted.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:425.

1258.

Cistercian renew prayers for the pope, the Holy Land, the kingdom of France, and the entire church.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2: 435 (item 1).

1260.

After receiving a letter from Innocent IV about Mongol invasions inArmenia, Antioch, Damascus, and Aleppo, Louis IX calls a counsel of bishops and princes in Paris, whence was ordered “many orations, the doing of processions, and the punishing of blasphemy.”

Guillaume de Nangis, Vie de Saint Louis, RHF 20:412 (for Latin) and 413 (for French).

1260, 25 January.

Eudes Rigaud, archbishop of Rouen, orders a special mass pro terra sancta in the province of Rouen, for our brothers in terra transmarina, specifically in Constantinople and in Morea. Daily during High Mass, Psalm 78, with the Pater noster, versicles, and orationibus consuetis pro terra sancta should be sung before the Pax domini.Regestrum visitationum archiepiscopi Rothomagensis, ed. T. Bonnin, 389

1260.

Council of Bordeaux, in written address to Alexander IV, processions are prescribed on the first Friday of each month, along with prayers, fasting, and alms, in all provinces, and the special collect and mass with the Psalm Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78), for aid against the Tartars and “to remove the scourge of God.”

Mansi, Sacrorum Consiliorum, 23:1048 (§4).

1261.

Council of Ravenna. Alexander IV asks the church to offer prayers against Mongols.

Salimbene de Adam, Chronica, ed. Scalia, 1:580–581

1261.

Cistercians institute clamors on account of the “cruelty of the Tartars [Mongols],” including the responsory Aspice Domine, the verse non enim, the versicle Ostende nobis Domine, and the collect Ineffabilem (CO 3129). At daily mass should be sung Psalm 78 (as was done formerly) and the collect Omnipotens sempiterne Deus in cuius manu sunt omnium potestates (CO 3846), where the old “ad romanorum benignus imperium” is replaced with “respice ad christianorum benignus auxilium.”

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 2:475–476.

(p.317) 1261.

Innocent IV promulgates through two councils, one at Mainz and one at Magdeburg, the Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78), with a series of versicles and the collect Deus a quo sancta desideria (CO 1088). The priests should cry out in the vernacular “Repent” and prostrate themselves and say the Pater Noster. Bells are rung so that all not present can pray, and this gives ten days of indulgence. All cities should have processions. Priests should fast. Those who participate in the procession receive a forty-day indulgence. Karl Joseph von Hefele, Histoire des conciles d’apres les documents originaux, trans. Henri Leclercq (Paris: 1907–), 6.1, pp. 106, 109. Mansi Sacrorum Concilorum, 23:1073 (Council at Mainz).

1262. Collapse of Latin Empire of Constantinople.

1262.

Cistercians resume prayers instituted in 1261. Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 3:3.

~1245–1267.

Statutes for the Disciplinati del Borgo Porta Nova di Vicenza include prayers pro fidelibus romane ecclesie, pro persecutoribus eiusdem, pro sepulcro D.N.J. Christi, quod restituatur christianis et quod semper in manibus christianorum maneat.

Gilles Gerard Meersseman, Ordo Fraternitatis: Confraternite e pieta’dei laici nel medioevo, Italia sacra 24–26, 2 vols. (Rome: 1977), p. 490.

1263, 25 April.

Urban requests preaching and processions in the kingdom of France as well as Metz, Toul, Verdun, Liege, and Cambrai, for the liberation of the Holy Land and aid against the Mongols.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1263, §13 (22:96–97).

1267: Louis IX takes the Cross a second time.

1268.

Cardinal Ottobuono, the papal legate to England, instituted at the council of London yearly solemn and public processions as well as prayers “to bring back peace” on account of the subjugation of the Holy Land and war in England.

F. M. Powicke and R. C. Cheney, Councils and Synods, with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, 2 in 4 vols. (Oxford: 1964–1981), II.ii.781–782 (item 30).

Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum. 23:1248 (canon 35).

1268.

Cistercians institute the Salus populi mass “pro bono statu Terrae sanctae et pro defensione sanctae romanae ecclessiae.”

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 3:61.

1269–1270: Louis IX’s second crusade to Tunis. Edward I of England continues on to the Holy Land.

1269.

At the general chapter held in Paris, the Dominicans, who are commissioned to preach the cross, institute special prayers, including Psalm 78 “with its versicles and prayers” be said at the conventual mass, to begin after Easter, in support of Louis IX’s crusade.

Acta Capitulorum Generalium (Rome: 1898), 1:149 (in vol. 3 of the Monumenta Ordinis Fratrum Praedicatorum Historica series).

(p.318) 1270.

Marguerite of Provence requests Cistercians to say prayers for Louis IX and others who have taken the cross. The first day of every month a procession ending in the chapter house, with the responsory Aspice Domine, and the versicle Exurgat Deus, the collect Ineffabilem (CO 3129). In the kingdom of France, the collect Famulum tuum regem nostrorum, Psalm 78, with a series of versicles, including Exurgat Deus, Ineffabilem, the seven penitential psalms, and the litany. Also a petition to say the mass of the Holy Cross for pilgrims in the Holy Land.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 3:90, 91–92 (items 54, 75).

~1270.

The Council of Cognac (ca. 1270), reinstitutes prayers for the work of the Holy Land and for the crusader Lord [Louis IX] King of France. These prayers should be done in every church each week, including the Mass of the Holy Spirit and of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Pontal, Les statuts synodaux français du XIIIe siècle, 5:61 (no. 30).

1272.

Gregory X requests Cistercians for prayers pro terra sancta, including the Aspice Domine responsory, Exurgat Deus, versicle, and Innocent III’s Deus qui admirabili collect.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 3:112 (item 42).

1274.

At the Second Council of Lyon, Gregory X institutes Psalm 78, with the versicle Exurgat Deus, and the collect Deus qui admirabili providentia, to be said at the conventual mass. This is recorded in the statutes of the Cistercian order for the year 1274.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 3:126–127 (item 1).

1290.

Cistercians order the Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78) clamor, along with the usual versicles and collects to be said for the Holy Land, “which our Lord God consecrated with his blood,” at the conventual (not high) mass throughout the order.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 3:248 (item 20).

1291: The fall of Acre to Kavalun. The end of the Latin Kingdoms in Palestine.

1292.

Synod in the Province of Canterbury, the New Temple, London, and Lambeth, enjoins that all clergy every Sunday offer the prayers for the recuperation of the Holy Land. Report specifies the Deus venerunt gentes Psalm (Ps. 78) with the other prayers, “as are customary,” vigils, and fasts.

F. M. Powicke and R. C. Cheney, Councils and Synods, with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, 2 in 4 vols. (Oxford: 1964–1981), II.ii.1109–1110 (item 1).

Bartholomew Cotton, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. R. Luard (RS 185), 206–207.

(p.319) 1295, 4–7 May.

Robert of Winchelsey, the archbishop of Canterbury, issued detailed liturgical instructions to the English clergy and laity. Called for the Salus populi mass, three Psalms (78, 66, 122), six versicles, and three dedicated orations (Deus qui admirabili, Deus auctor pacis [CO 1110, pro pacis], and Quesumus omnipotens deus ut famulus tuus [CO 4880a, pro rege]), as well as regular Friday processions. The laity to attend were at minimum to recite Pater Nosters and Ave Marias.

Registrum Roberti Winchelsey, Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi AD 1294–1313, ed. Rose Graham, 1:26–30.

Also recorded in: Registrum Johannis de Pontissara, episcopi Wyntoniensis, ed. Cecil Deedes (London: 1915), 1:191–193.

1297.

Crusading prayers and processions previously ordered for the Holy land to be said for Edward I’s upcoming expedition against the Scots.

Mansi Sacrorum Conciliorum 24:1176.

1298, 15 July.

Robert of Winchelsey, archbishop of Canterbury, at a Council of the Province of Canterbury at the New Temple (London), renews instructions for solemn processions and prayers done for the state of the Holy Land and the prosperity of the kingdom.

Registrum Roberti Winchelsey, Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi AD 1294–1313, ed. Rose Graham 1:271. Also printed in:F. M. Powicke and R. C. Cheney, Councils and Synods, with Other Documents Relating to the English Church, 2 in 4 vols. (Oxford: 1964–1981), II.2.1195–1196

13th century (date uncertain).

In the synodal statutes from Soissons, the bishop orders that the “regular prayers” be done in aid of the Holy Land. Pontal, Les statuts synodaux français du XIIIe siècle, 4:300, item 78.

13th 1306: Hospitallers capture Rhodes.

1307.

Clement V asks Cistercians to recite Psalm 78 with the usual collect.

Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis Cisterciensis, 3:318 (item 7).

J. Loserth, “Aus den Annales diffiniciones d. Generalkapitels d. Zisterzienser in den Jahren 1290–1330,” Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde (1919): 625.

1308, 11 August.

Clement V prescribes orationes contra paganorum (proper mass prayers) against the “perfidy of pagans” in support of his plans for a Hospitaller expedition to Armenia. The prayers are Omnipotens sempiterne Deus (3846), Sacrificium domine (5217), and Protector noster aspice (CO 4746).

Regestum Clementis Papae V, 3:161, no. 2987.

1309, 11 July.

Clement V reissues, with greater precision and emphasis, the prescription of the previous August.

1312.

Regestum Clementis Papae V, 4:313, no. 4769. Carmelite Ordinal gives instruction for “when and how the Deus venerunt gentes [Ps. 78]” prayers should be said, including the preces, the Exurgat Deus versicle, and the Deus qui admirabili collect.

Zimmerman, Benedict. Ordinaire de l’Ordre de Notre-Dame du Mont Carmel. (Paris: 1910), 86.

(p.320) 1322, 20 December.

John XXII, in a letter to the archbishop of Toulouse, issued instructions for a weekly public sermon, and a mass to the Holy Trinity, to the Virgin Mary, and to the Holy Angels, which should include the Deus venerunt gentes (Ps. 78) clamor, a series of versicles, as well as the

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus (CO 3846) and the Hostium nostrorum (CO 3007) prayers. In all other masses said during the week, the clamor should be Psalm 69, the versicles as for the weekly mass, and Hostium nostorum.

Lettres secrètes, ed. Coulon and Clemence, 2:204–205, no. 1571.

1331.

John XXII, in a letter to Peter, the patriarch of Jerusalem, and to all the archbishops and bishops in the kingdom of France, asks for masses for the liberation of the Holy Land from the hands of the enemy during the course of the prescribed crusade, the Mass for the Trinity, the Mass for the Cross, and the Mass for the Blessed Virgin, and celebration should include the standard prayers: Deus qui admirabili providentia, Sacrificium Domine quod immolamus (CO 5217), and Protector noster aspice deus (CO 4746).

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1331, §30 (24:479–480).

1333, 26 July.

John XXII to the Archbishop of Reims and suffragens, issues instructions for a “mass for the liberty of the Holy Land from the hands of the enemy” during the duration of a limited campaign, including a Mass for the Trinity, for the Cross, and for the Virgin. Institutes the Deus qui admirabili collect, the collection, and the Protector noster aspice (CO 4746), all prescribed in full.

Lettres secrètes, ed. Coulon and Clemence, 10:78, no. 5210.

1340, August 25.

Benedict XII (from Avignon) to Spanish clergy asking for prayers and processions against the enemies of the faith, especially the “rege Marochitano.”

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1340, §49 (25:209).

1344, February 1.

Clement VI to Edward III of England, reporting thanksgiving prayers and processions performed to thank God for the 1344 victory in capturing the port at Smyrna.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1344 §6 (25:328).

1344, July.

Clement VI to Alfonse XI of Castile, reporting a thanksgiving procession at the Roman curia to celebrate the conclusion of the long siege of Algeciras in 1344.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1344 §52 (25:347).

1361.

Philippe of Mézières reports that he organized solemn masses in Cyprus to celebrate the victory contra fidei Christiane hostes dedisset in Cyprus. Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1361 §9 (26:60).

Philippe de Mézières, The Life of Saint Peter Thomas, ed. Joachim Smet (Rome: 1954) p. 97.

1363.

Urban V, to the archbishop of Reims and his suffragens requests a daily mass pro liberatione dictae Terrae de manibus hostium praedicatorum, for the prosecution of the Savoyard crusade. The liturgical prescriptions are identical to those issued by John XII in 1333.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad anum 1363, §18 (26:83–84).

(p.321) 1364, 1 April.

Urban V writes to French and German bishops announcing King John I’s leadership of the crusade and instructing them to preach the cross and that the clamor be inserted weekly in a mass for the liberation of the Holy Land.

Lettre secrètes et curiales du Pape Urbain V, ed. P Lecacheux and G. Mollat, no. 3267.

1373, 23 March.

Gregory XI, as part of preparations for a new crusade against the Turks, asks for the performance of the Mass of the Trinity, of the Cross, and the Blessed virgin.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1373 §5 (26:220–221).

1383.

Henry Dispenser’s crusade. Bishop’s ordinances published for the crusade instructs preachers to advise people to hold processions and perform prayers for the salvation of the church, the realm, and the expedition of pilgrims.

Henry Knighton, Knighton’s Chronicle: 1337–1396, ed. G. H. Martin (Oxford: 1995), 331.

1419–ca. 1434: Hussite crusades.

1421.

5 June. Cardinal Branda da Castiglione prescribes liturgical instructions for campaigns against Wycliffites, Hussites, and other heretics.

František Palacký. Urkundliche Beiträge zur Geschichte des Hussitenkrieges vom Jahre 1419 an, 2 vols. (Prague: 1873), 1:108–116. For massprayers, see 111–112.

1427.

Prayers and fasting enjoined for the anti-Hussite Crusade of 1427. Robert Swanson, “Prayer and Participation in Late Medieval England,” in Elite and Popular Religion, ed. Kate Cooper and Jeremy Gregory (Woodbridge, UK: 2006), 136, citing Oxford Bodleian Library, ms Tanner 165, fol. 91r–v (Register of William Molash, Prior of Christ Church, Canterbury).

1428, 18 January.

Pope Martin V to the archbishop of Canterbury, Henry Chichele, for the aid of the Hussite crusade. He ordered general processions on the first Sunday of each month to be said before the mass, “with the litany, responsories, and prayers according to the customs of each church,” and with special prayers designated.

The Register of Edmund Lacy Bishop of Exeter 1420–1453, ed. G. R. Dunstan (Torquay: 1963), 1:209–11.

1429, January.

Cardinal Beaufort (papal legate), organizing the crusade against the Hussites (called by Martin V) in Canterbury, established general processions, and mass propers, including a series of versicles, the Ecclesie tue (CO 2404b), Hostium nostrorum (CO 3007), and the Omnipotens et misericors deus.

Robert Swanson, “Preaching Crusade in Fifteenth-Century England: Instructions for the Administration of the Anti-Hussite Crusade of 1429 in the Diocese of Canterbury,” Crusades 12 (2013): 192.

1453: Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans, under Mehmet II.

1454, March.

John Kemp, archbishop of Canterbury, ordered solemn processions be held in parish churches to pray for the defeat and the fall of the Turks. David Wilkins, Concilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae (London, 1767), 3:563–564.

1455, May 15: Calixtus III proclaims crusade to recapture Constantinople.

(p.322) 1455.

Nicolas V extends indulgences to clergy preaching or saying the mass for the Burgundian crusade. The entire populace was to participate in asking for victory. Calixtus III confirmed these the following year.

Benjamin Weber, Lutter contre les Turcs, 440, citing Vatican Secret Archives, Reg. Vat. 456, 1r–3r (a later confirmation of the bull by Calixtus III).

1455, April.

William Booth, archbishop of York, orders prayers be said for the success of Calixtus III’s expedition.

Jonathan Harris, “Publicising the Crusade: English Bishops and the Jubilee Indulgence of 1455,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 50 (1999): 30–31, citing York, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, Reg. 20, fols. 177v–178v.

1456, 29 June.

In preparation for the relief of Belgrade, Pope Calixtus III, in Cum hiis superioribus, to all of Christendom, called for prayer, fasting, and penance, and that processions be held on the first Sunday of every month in support of the relief of Belgrade; included contra paganos mass, prescribing Omnipotens sempiterne Deus (CO 3846), and a sermon.

Lajos Vecsey, Callixti III Bulla orationum, 1955, 48–52.

1456.

Calixtus III asks the legate John Solerius to institute monthly processions and regular prayers in Spain pro victoria habenda contra Turcos and also asks his legate to Hungary to promulgate Cum hiis superioribus throughout the Christian world.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1456, §§18–19 (29:67).

Benjamin Weber, Lutter contre les Turcs, 441, citing Vatican Secret Archives, Arm. XXXIX, vol. 7, 18v–19v.

1456, August: Relief of Belgrade, under John Hunyadi. Ottomans pushed back.

1460, 14 January.

Pius II, in Ecclesiam Christi, which he issued at the end of the Council of Mantua, asks for prayers in every town and place on Sunday to help in the crusade.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1460, §3 (29:220).

1460, March.

Pius II asks the nuns of the monastery of Corpus Christi inBoulogne to say, daily, five Pater Nosters and five Ave Marias for the success of the expedition of the Duke of Burgundy.

Weber, Lutter contre les Turcs, 442, citing Vatican Secret Archives, Reg. Vat, 512, 142v.

1463, 24 August–1 September.

Cardinal John Bessarion issues instructions to preachers that includes the organization of prayers, processions, and litanies to be done in all churches; and prescribes special (nonstandard) prayers for the litany, and special collect for the mass, including Omnipotens sempiterne Deus (CO 3846), and Ecclesie tue (CO2404b).

Mohler, “Bessarions Instruktion,” 344–345.

1463.

Pius II, in Sane cum perfidissimus, ordered that in all churches and monasteries processions should be done each Thursday with litanies and prayers, since “without spiritual arms temporal arms will accomplish nothing.”

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1463 §13 (29:349–350)

(p.323) 1470: Battle of Negroponte. Negroponte captured from Venetians by the Ottomans.

1470.

Pope Paul II confirms Bernard of Cattaro’s anti-Turk mass.

Linder RA 186, 267.

1470, 30 September.

Solemn processions and prayers were organized in Venice at the news of the fall of Negroponte.

Franz Babinger, Mehmed the Conqueror and his Time (Princeton: 1978), 283, with no further source citation.

1471, 18 January.

Following the capture of Negroponte, Elie de Bourdeilles, archbishop of Tours, institutes prayers and processions throughout the land with the hope of getting the king to participate in a new crusade.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1471, §§43–44 (29:508–509).

Setton, Papacy and the Levant (Philadelphia: 1976), 2:308.

1480, 21 August. Ottomans occupy Otranto. May-August, Ottomans besiege Rhodes.

1480.

Pope Sixtus IV promulgates Missa contra Turcum (Omnia que fecisti), and processions and masses contra Turcum are organized in Rome.

Linder, Raising Arms, 187.

Setton, The Papacy and the Levant (Philadelphia: 1976), 2:355.

1500, 26 September.

Pope Alexander VI orders processions in the province of Walachia, and sends Bishop Gaspar Calliensis to promulgate the supplications.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1500. §§15–16 (30:315)

1510.

In Iberia, processions prescribed for all clergy for three days, as done on Corpus Christi, in the effort contra infideles et regem Tripolitanum.

Special mass, including three specially prescribed collects.

Annales Ecclesiastici ad annum 1510, §§31–32 (30:531).

1512–17.

Fifth Lateran Council, issues instructions for masses “for the peace of Christians and for the confounding of the infidels respectively,” including Deus a quo sancta desideria (CO 1088) and Deus in cuius manu sunt omnes potestates et omnia iura regnorum, respice in auxilium christianorum (a version of CO 3846).

Norman P. Tanner, Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils (Washington, DC: 1990), 1:611. (p.324)