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Between Homeland and MotherlandAfrica, U.S. Foreign Policy, and Black Leadership in America$
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Alvin B. Jr. Tillery

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780801448973

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801448973.001.0001

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“His Failure Will Be Theirs”

“His Failure Will Be Theirs”

Why the Black Elite Resisted Garveyism and Embraced Ethiopia

(p.43) 2 “His Failure Will Be Theirs”
Between Homeland and Motherland

Alvin B. Tillery

Cornell University Press

This chapter examines the ways that black elites responded to Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) movement and the grassroots protest movement that emerged in black communities during the Italian-Ethiopian War. It focuses on why the black elite opposed Garveyism at a time when most black leaders were also committed to transnationalism as persued in U.S. foreign policy. Some studies maintain that the black elite members worked against Garvey because they viewed his rapid success in building a mass movement as a threat to the survival of their own organizations. The majority of the literature, however, suggests that the rift between Garvey and the black leadership class was due to a clash of personalities, among others. Black leaders shunned Garvey because they viewed his movement as an attempt to resurrect the long-repudiated ideology of emigrationism.

Keywords:   Marcus Garvey, Garveyism, transnationalism, Universal Negro Improvement Association, UNIA, Italian-Ethiopian War

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