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The Pseudo-Democrat's DilemmaWhy Election Monitoring Became an International Norm$
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Susan D. Hyde

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780801449666

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801449666.001.0001

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Sovereign Leaders and the Decision to Invite Observers

Sovereign Leaders and the Decision to Invite Observers

(p.56) 2 Sovereign Leaders and the Decision to Invite Observers
The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma

Susan D. Hyde

Cornell University Press

This chapter evaluates why leaders began inviting election monitoring and why election observation spread throughout the world using a variety of empirical evidence, including government rhetoric about the decision to invite observers and cross-national data from 1960 to 2006 documenting when and where election monitoring diffused. Although the determinants of the decision to invite observers have changed over time, qualitative and quantitative evidence show that leaders were motivated to invite observers, in part because it provided a credible signal of their intent to hold democratic elections and because they could gain more benefits from democracy promoters as a result. Election monitoring became an effective signal because it provides valuable information to international actors and it was more costly for pseudo-democrats to imitate.

Keywords:   international norms, norm creation, international election observation, election monitoring, democracy promotion

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