This epilogue describes northern blacks' continued struggle for full citizenship rights through the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During the post-Reconstruction years, they encountered numerous obstacles to their efforts to protect the fundamental rights of African Americans. Racial segregation increased significantly in the North due in part to whites' hostile reaction to the large-scale northern migration of southern blacks. At the same time, the Republican Party became the dominant political force in much of the North between the 1890s and the 1930s; with fewer close elections in which blacks could determine the outcome. In this hostile environment, black civil rights organizations enjoyed far less success than the Reconstruction-era equal rights movement. Only with the New Deal, World War II, the growth of a postwar black middle class, changing white racial attitudes, and other significant developments did the modern civil rights movement emerge in the mid-twentieth century.
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