This book examines how professionalization became intertwined with xenophobia and economic self-defense in the French Third Republic. Focusing on the fields of law and medicine within the complex setting of interwar and Vichy France, it considers the rise of a social movement that lobbied for state intervention to exclude undesirable competitors from these professions. More specifically, it explores how lawyers and physicians, complaining that their professions were overcrowded with foreigners and naturalized citizens, persuaded legislators to create a second-class level of citizenship in France. These lobbying efforts led to exclusionary legislation imposing a two percent quota on Jews in both legal and medical professions. The book discusses three motivations behind this exclusionary movement: prejudice, economic protectionism, and professional identity-formation.
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