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ExclusionsPracticing Prejudice in French Law and Medicine, 1920-1945$
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Julie Fette

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780801450211

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801450211.001.0001

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The Barrier of the Law Bar

The Barrier of the Law Bar

Chapter:
(p.90) Chapter 4 The Barrier of the Law Bar
Source:
Exclusions
Author(s):

Julie Fette

Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:10.7591/cornell/9780801450211.003.0005

This chapter examines how the French legal profession sought to protect itself against foreigners and naturalized citizens by blocking them from membership in law bars. More specifically, it considers how lawyers worked to increase their profession's exclusivity by invigorating educational requirements and marginalizing competitors who were not members of the bar, such as legal consultants. The nationalistic vision of bar membership was only one element in a larger context of professional protectionism during the interwar years. Like doctors, lawyers pursued many other strategies to reduce their numbers, to raise their prestige, to marginalize professional competitors outside the bar, and to exclude various categories from their membership. This chapter discusses such strategies, such as improving legal education and training, directing law school graduates toward careers away from the bar, denigrating competitors such as agents d'affaires, and challenging the rights of women and elderly lawyers to bar membership.

Keywords:   legal profession, foreigners, naturalized citizens, law bars, lawyers, bar membership, professional protectionism, legal education, women, elderly lawyers

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