This chapter examines degenerative corruption and especially how endemic corruption leads to economic crisis by focusing on four cases: Equatorial Guinea during the Mobutu era (1965–1997), Haiti under the Duvaliers (1957–1986), the Dominican Republic during the Trujillo years (1930–1961), and the Central African Republic during the Bokassa period (1966–1979). It first considers the theoretical differences between degenerative and more benign forms of corruption, including developmental corruption, before discussing degenerative corruption in relation to plunder or looting and kleptocracy. The goal is to explain corruption as process and the implications of differing forms of corruption for economic growth. The chapter also explores the differential effects of auto-corruption and transactive corruption.
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