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Frontiers of FearImmigration and Insecurity in the United States and Europe$
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Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780801450686

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801450686.001.0001

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Securitization before 9/11

Securitization before 9/11

(p.49) Chapter 2 Securitization before 9/11
Frontiers of Fear

Ariane Chebel d’Appollonia

Cornell University Press

This chapter argues that 9/11 did not constitute a dramatic departure from either the U.S. or the European prior stance on the immigration–terrorism nexus. Instead, it suggests that 9/11 marked an intensification of prior policies and that the securitization of immigration policies is the product of a long-term process dating from the mid-1980s. In other words, the connection between terrorism, other criminal activities, and immigration had been constructed in Europe and in the United States before 9/11. This trend was reinforced in the 1990s by the militarization of border controls, coupled with the reclassification of a wide range of activities as national security problems (such as drug trafficking, illegal immigration, and migrant delinquency). This chapter examines the gradual convergence of immigration policies and counterterrorism measures before 9/11 and assesses the current securitization of immigration that uses traditional rhetorical arguments based on two interrelated dimensions: suspicion toward foreign-born people who are perceived as potential members of a “fifth column,” and the classification of those crossing a border as criminals.

Keywords:   immigration securitization, immigration policies, terrorism, immigration, Europe, 9/11, border controls, national security, counterterrorism, fifth column

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