This concluding chapter looks further on to the conceptions of peace in the age of Dante Alighieri, particularly in the political theory of Dante’s contemporary, Marsilius of Padua. In Defender of the Peace (1324) Marsilius refuted the legitimacy of papal government in terms all too familiar: assignation of a monopoly over peace. The most ardent of imperialists, Marsilius refused the papacy a part in government by denying its ability to maintain peace on earth. He argued that the end (and thus final cause) of government was peace, since only in peace could humanity achieve its greatest potential, and only in tranquility could the various components of the state function in the most coordinated and effective manner. To defend tranquility, temporal dominion must employ coercion. Meanwhile, the ordering of the eternal kingdom must rely on virtue and faith, albeit in a manner that obviated conflict and competition.
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