This introductory chapter provides an overview of the Great Reforms, which reformed the legal system and revolutionized justice, launched by Tsar Alexander II (1855–1881) following Russia's disastrous defeat in the Crimean War (1853–1856). Structurally, the new Code of Criminal Procedure—which created an independent judiciary with trials open to the public—transformed the inquisitorial system into an adversarial one. The theatricality of the adversarial courtroom made it a place where modernity could be performed by all involved in the pursuit of justice. Moreover, the open, adversarial courtroom introduced two emergent professions to the public: the defense attorney, or zashchitnik, and the forensic specialist.
Cornell Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.