Law and Order
Law and Order
This chapter details the judicial reforms of 1864. Tsar Alexander II signed the declaration of independence for the Russian judiciary on November 20, 1864, with the promise to make justice “swift, righteous, and benevolent.” Rather than changing laws or punishments, however, the Statutes of Criminal Procedure promulgated in 1864 restructured the ways in which crimes were investigated and prosecuted. Indeed, central to the reform of the judiciary was the transfer of criminal investigations away from the police to the office of the judicial investigator. As their education in jurisprudence was required, the investigators were judicial personnel who swore an oath of office and could not be fired without legal cause. With regards to prosecution, the reformers provided protection for defendants in that the judge had to “give the accused every possible means for acquittal.”
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