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Violence and VengeanceReligious Conflict and Its Aftermath in Eastern Indonesia$
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Christopher R. Duncan

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780801451584

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801451584.001.0001

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Massacres, Militias, and Forced Conversions

Massacres, Militias, and Forced Conversions

(p.75) Chapter 4 Massacres, Militias, and Forced Conversions
Violence and Vengeance

Christopher R. Duncan

Cornell University Press

This chapter documents the outbreak of violence in northern Halmahera. It then charts how the fighting spread throughout the rest of the province until the end of large-scale conflict in June 2000 after a massacre in northern Halmahera. It gives particular attention to the religious nature of various acts of violence that were highlighted in people's narratives, such as forced conversions. In the end several thousand people were killed and more than 220,000 were displaced during the violence. Those displaced by the fighting went to a number of places based on religious identification. North Moluccan Muslims fled primarily to Ternate, the Galela subdistrict, southern Morotai, and Bacan. The Christian diaspora was more widespread and covered at least four provinces (North Maluku, Maluku, North Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya).

Keywords:   Halmahera, communal violence, religious violence, North Maluku, Christians, Muslims

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