This concluding chapter considers the question of the legal status of dhimmis. Evidence presented in the previous chapters, as well as the analysis of boundary making, allow for a better understanding of the legal status of Christians and Jews in al-Andalus from the perspective of ninth-and tenth-century Maliki fuqaha'. The chapter points to how the book discusses two political crises that provoked attention to the constitutional ahd al-dhimma: the Christian martyrdoms that took place in Cordoba in the 850s, and the “crossing over” of dhimmis from Granada, Cordoba, and Seville to support Alfonso I in his campaigns against the Muslims in 1125. Ultimately, political order, a stable justice system, and the development of law in al-Andalus were all achieved by rulers and jurists addressing Muslim-dhimmi relations and legal boundaries between Muslims and dhimmis.
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