Military Civic Action and the Battle of Irupata
This chapter demonstrates the dual process by which President John F. Kennedy's Alliance for Progress improved President Víctor Paz's efforts to maintain Bolivia's noncommunist orientation. First, civic action programs of the Alliance for Progress fueled a rapid militarization of development. Second, Kennedy's Special Group on Counterinsurgency allocated $100,000 through United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to equip a pro-Paz Indian peasant militia that planned to attack the left-wing miners of Siglo XX, who were mounting a fierce campaign to block mass firings and other labor reforms required by Alliance for Progress development programs. The remainder of the chapter narrates the battle in the village of Irupata between armed miners and Indian peasants and undercover soldiers from Paz's presidential guard regiment.
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