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American Biodefense – How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security - Cornell Scholarship Online
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American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security

Frank L. III Smith


Biological weapons have threatened U.S. national security since at least World War II. Historically, however, the U.S. military has neglected research, development, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September 11 and the anthrax letters of 2001, the United States started spending billions of dollars per year on medical countermeasures and biological detection systems. But most of this funding now comes from the Department of Health and Human Services rather than the Department of Defense. Why has the U.S. military neglected biodefense and allowed civilian organizations to take ... More

Keywords: biological weapons, U.S. national security, cyber attacks, U.S. military, biodefense, kinetic warfare, biological warfare, national security policy

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2014 Print ISBN-13: 9780801452710
Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016 DOI:10.7591/cornell/9780801452710.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Frank L. III Smith, author
University of Sydney