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Black ViennaThe Radical Right in the Red City, 1918-1938$
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Janek Wasserman

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780801452871

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801452871.001.0001

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The Triumph of Radical Conservatism in the Austrofascist State, 1933–1938

The Triumph of Radical Conservatism in the Austrofascist State, 1933–1938

(p.188) Chapter 7 The Triumph of Radical Conservatism in the Austrofascist State, 1933–1938
Black Vienna

Janek Wasserman

Cornell University Press

This chapter explores the evolution of the Black Viennese cultural field in the late 1920s and 1930s from a period of relative consensus through its tensions in the early Austrofascist state to the eventual triumph of the radicals before the Anschluss. An examination of the conservative intellectual landscape through its leading publications—Das neue Reich, Die schönere Zukunft, and Der christliche Ständestaat—and the scholarly works published by central thinkers such as Hans Eibl, Johannes Messner, and Eric Voegelin, reveals the ideological rift in Black Vienna. While a contingent of intellectuals supported the Ständestaat and accepted the opportunities it provided, most tolerated the new government only grudgingly. As the Austrian state struggled to consolidate its power and Hitler's Germany continued its ascendancy, the calls for a völksich revolution only increased. Austrofascist ideology never achieved the status of a cultural dominant—the more radical Black Viennese ideas of German nationalism, fascism, and anti-Semitism predominated. Despite a general uneasiness about the Nazis, the vast majority of Black Viennese intellectuals, because of the ongoing radicalization of their conservative ideology, bear some responsibility for the Nazi triumph.

Keywords:   Black Vienna, Joseph Eberle interwar Vienna, Dietrich Hildebrand, fascism, Nazis, Anschluss, Austrofascist ideology, German nationalism, fascism, anti-Semitism

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