This concluding chapter begins with a brief overview of the postwar Austrian intellectual climate. It then discusses how the restoration of a Black Viennese ideological apparatus and the exclusion of countervailing trends reinforces several key arguments of this book, since the ideological conflicts of the Second Republic continued the battles from the First Republic. The first point is that interwar Vienna was hardly a red fortress, especially intellectually. Conservative scholarly societies dwarfed progressive ones in size, with participation a prerequisite for advancement. Black Viennese professors and ministers crafted Austrian culture in their image and strove to drive reds out—either into alternative institutions or into exile. Second, this book demands a reevaluation of the relationship between Catholicism, conservatism, and fascism in interwar Austria. Third, the connection between politics, science, and philosophy in interwar Vienna was not an accidental one—it was unavoidable. A commitment to new scientific and philosophical methods almost invariably entailed affiliations with Austro-Marxist ideological circles.
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