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Before the Gregorian ReformThe Latin Church at the Turn of the First Millennium$
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John Howe

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780801452895

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801452895.001.0001

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“The Body Is Not a Single Part”

“The Body Is Not a Single Part”

(p.230) Chapter 8 “The Body Is Not a Single Part”
Before the Gregorian Reform

John Howe

Cornell University Press

This chapter examines ecclesiastical organization in the tenth and eleventh centuries, taking its lead from The Institutes of Polity, Civil and Ecclesiastical by Archbishop Wulfstan of York, written around the millennium in English. The Archbishop starts with the heavenly king and the earthly king and then proceeds to discuss bishops, lay magnates and patrons, Mass priests, abbots and abbesses, monks and nuns, and finally lay folk. Wulfstan moves from those who have the most power over the Latin Church down to those who have the least—that is, from kings to simple members of the laity. This chapter first provides an overview of the hierarchy of the millennial Church before turning to ecclesiastical elites that wield power over the Church, namely: abbots and abbesses, bishops, Christian kings, popes, and secular lords and patrons. It also looks at the less distinguished Christians who held no formal or informal ecclesiastical offices.

Keywords:   ecclesiastical elites, Wulfstan of York, Latin Church, hierarchy, abbots and abbesses, bishops, Christian kings, popes, secular lords and patrons, Christians

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