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Against Immediate EvilAmerican Internationalists and the Four Freedoms on the Eve of World War II$
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Andrew Johnstone

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780801453250

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801453250.001.0001

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The Battle of the Atlantic from Barbarossa to Pearl Harbor

The Battle of the Atlantic from Barbarossa to Pearl Harbor

(p.154) Chapter 8 The Battle of the Atlantic from Barbarossa to Pearl Harbor
Against Immediate Evil

Andrew Johnstone

Cornell University Press

This chapter details events in 1941 as the United States edged closer to war in the Atlantic. Having expanded the area of Atlantic patrols in April, President Roosevelt reiterated the need to reduce attacks on shipping in his May 27 fireside chat. However, with the notable exception of the arrival of U.S. marines in Iceland, there was little concrete action. Roosevelt was reluctant to call for smore aggressive measures, believing that the nation was divided on the issue of war. With few major initiatives to promote, both the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA) and Fight for Freedom (FFF) looked for issues where they could in a bid to turn public opinion. Regarding the war, they fixed their attention on the battle of the Atlantic and any measures that supported the delivery of aid to Europe. Domestically, internationalist organizations focused on fighting the forces of non-interventionism, both within Congress and in the wider public as represented by the America First Committee. The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, ended the bitter debate regarding American involvement in the war, and a declaration of war against Japan was passed the following day.

Keywords:   United States, American internationalists, internationalism, foreign policy, Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, Fight for Freedom, Pearl Harbor

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