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Corruption as a Last ResortAdapting to the Market in Central Asia$
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Kelly M. McMann

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780801453274

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801453274.001.0001

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Bribery, Favoritism, and Clientelism

Bribery, Favoritism, and Clientelism

Evidence from Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

(p.35) 3 Bribery, Favoritism, and Clientelism
Corruption as a Last Resort

Kelly M. McMann

Cornell University Press

This chapter details the petty corruption that goes on in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. The interviews conducted offer direct evidence that citizens use bribes, personal connections, and promises of political support to try to obtain money, credit, and employment from government officials. Whereas the interview data reveal the illicit nature of citizens' efforts to secure resources from government officials, the survey data demonstrate how citizens are competing among themselves for state resources, and thus a bribe, connection, or promise of political support can provide an individual with an edge. The survey data also show how relatively common the practice of seeking help from government officials is. Citizens' most pressing needs are money, credit, and employment, and they try to obtain these resources from village leaders and raion (district) and oblast (provincial) bureaucrats and to a lesser extent oblast and national deputies.

Keywords:   absence-of-alternatives approach, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, basic needs, petty corruption, corrupt practices, bribes, personal connections, political support

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