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Corruption as a Last ResortAdapting to the Market in Central Asia$
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Kelly M. McMann

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780801453274

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9780801453274.001.0001

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Market Actors as an Unrealized Alternative

Market Actors as an Unrealized Alternative

The Effect of Market Reforms

(p.57) 4 Market Actors as an Unrealized Alternative
Corruption as a Last Resort

Kelly M. McMann

Cornell University Press

This chapter demonstrates how market reform has limited market actors' ability to provide goods and services, and thus has encouraged citizens to seek them illicitly from government officials. Interviews with ordinary citizens and officials reveal that market reform in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan has reduced the availability of government resources and discouraged reliance on the state, thus providing incentives for individuals to use corruption in the competition to secure state goods and services. This is not the case, however, in Uzbekistan, where market reform has not been undertaken. The absence-of-alternatives framework can account for the difference between Uzbekistan and the market reformers, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, whereas other theories of corruption cannot.

Keywords:   market reform, corruption, corrupt practices, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan

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