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Invisible WeaponsLiturgy and the Making of Crusade Ideology$
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M. Cecilia Gaposchkin

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9781501705151

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9781501705151.001.0001

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The Militant Eschatology of the Liturgy and the Origins of Crusade Ideology

The Militant Eschatology of the Liturgy and the Origins of Crusade Ideology

(p.29) 1 The Militant Eschatology of the Liturgy and the Origins of Crusade Ideology
Invisible Weapons

M. Cecilia Gaposchkin

Cornell University Press

This chapter begins before 1095, with rites and ideas contained in the liturgy prior to Urban II's epochal speech calling for the First Crusade at Clermont (1095). It establishes the basic liturgical language that influenced both crusading and the ideology of crusade, discussing the image of Jerusalem in the Western liturgy, and the rites of penitential pilgrimage, warfare, and the cross on which crusading drew. Each of these liturgical traditions would come to play a role in crusading, and their origins expose the processes by which the First Crusade was inflected by monastic ideals and grew out of, but recombined, existing devotional and ideological paradigms. It was these texts that allowed crusading to be so smoothly integrated into a larger eschatological scheme that mapped fighting Muslims onto fighting the greater battle against the devil.

Keywords:   liturgy, crusade, Jerusalem, penitential pilgrimage, warfare, cross, liturgical traditions, First Crusade, Muslims

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