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Invisible WeaponsLiturgy and the Making of Crusade Ideology$
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M. Cecilia Gaposchkin

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9781501705151

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9781501705151.001.0001

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Clamoring to God: Liturgy as a Weapon of War

Clamoring to God: Liturgy as a Weapon of War

Chapter:
(p.192) 6 Clamoring to God: Liturgy as a Weapon of War
Source:
Invisible Weapons
Author(s):

M. Cecilia Gaposchkin

Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:10.7591/cornell/9781501705151.003.0008

This chapter is about the institutional organization of liturgical penitence and supplication in the call for victory and vengeance that began in the wake of the Battle of Hattin. Starting with Gregory, popes and other ecclesiastical authorities sought to mobilize the collective spiritual resources of Christendom to pray to God to beseech aid in prosecuting holy war. Every major crusading initiative after was supported by a program liturgical supplication. This was a devotional response. And it was part of a larger program of social reform and pastoral organization that sought to widen spiritual and material support for the crusades and for Christian virtue in general. And most consequentially, it was part of the way in which the crusades were iteratively sacralized and brought into the very heart of Christian identity. Over the course of the thirteenth century, the program to call on God to support the crusade was embedded into the cursus of liturgical life. It also embedded the aims of crusading into the defining rituals of Christianity.

Keywords:   liturgical penitence, Battle of Hattin, Pope Gregory, holy war, crusading, social reform, pastoral organization, crusades, Christian identity

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