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Invisible Weapons – Liturgy and the Making of Crusade Ideology - Cornell Scholarship Online
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Invisible Weapons: Liturgy and the Making of Crusade Ideology

M. Cecilia Gaposchkin


In 1098, three years into the First Crusade and after a brutal eight-month siege, the Franks captured the city of Antioch. Two days later, Muslim forces arrived with a relief army, and the victors became the besieged. Exhausted and ravaged by illness and hunger, the Franks were exhorted by their religious leaders to supplicate God, and for three days they performed a series of liturgical exercises, beseeching God through ritual prayer to forgive their sins and grant them victory. The following day, the Christian army, accompanied by bishops and priests reciting psalms and hymns, marched out of ... More

Keywords: First Crusade, Franks, Antioch, Muslim forces, Crusades, Fifth Crusade, Pope Honorius III, Middle Ages, liturgy

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2016 Print ISBN-13: 9781501705151
Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: May 2017 DOI:10.7591/cornell/9781501705151.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

M. Cecilia Gaposchkin, author
Dartmouth College