Capitalizing on Land Dualism in New Order Jakarta
Jakarta under the New Order—the period of the rule of President Suharto which ended in 1998—represents a case of an authoritarian regime that employed regulatory reforms and developmental discourses to enable a massive and highly regressive appropriation of land at Jakarta’s periurban fringe. The New Order regime specifically used land permitting, a process through which the state granted private developers exclusive rights to acquire and develop land held under customary tenure, to transfer land from smallholders to major developers. The chapter analyzes one project that was enabled through such a permit, Bumi Serpong Damai, or BSD City. One of the early experiments in urban real estate megaproject development, BSD City initially undertook meaningful efforts to create a socially and ecologically sustainable new town model. However, these measures broke down quickly in the face of developer interests in the maximization of profit.
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