This concluding chapter examines how, in many ways, the structures and consequences of the petrodollar era of the long 1970s persisted and have shaped relationships up to the present. At the conclusion of the petrodollar-fueled Iran–Iraq War, the Islamic Republic stood weakened but unbowed. The horrific experience reaffirmed for many Iranians their opposition to US imperialism. Petrodollar legacies likewise weighed heavily on Iraq. The Iran–Iraq War left Baghdad with a large military but an underdeveloped economy and deeply indebted to the Arab monarchies' billions in petrodollar loans. In addition, the rise of al-Qaeda was rooted in petrodollar histories. Ultimately, the costs of the dictatorial US-led petrodollar order in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are high, as are those of the authoritarian petrodollar systems in the region operating in opposition.
Cornell Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.