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Migration in the Time of RevolutionChina, Indonesia, and the Cold War$
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Taomo Zhou

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781501739934

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9781501739934.001.0001

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China and the September Thirtieth Movement

China and the September Thirtieth Movement

(p.152) Chapter 8 China and the September Thirtieth Movement
Migration in the Time of Revolution

Taomo Zhou

Cornell University Press

This chapter focuses on the September Thirtieth Movement. In the early morning before dawn on October 1, 1965, a group of mostly middle-ranking military officers calling themselves the September Thirtieth Movement kidnapped and killed six senior anti-Communist generals. They later announced that a Revolutionary Council composed of left-wing, right-wing, and neutral political forces had seized power. General Suharto and the Indonesian army under him claimed that the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) had organized the movement with the encouragement of and support from Beijing in order to spark a national uprising. Ten days after the movement, the Indonesian army accused the Chinese government of smuggling arms to the PKI for the revolt. This claim of Beijing's alleged behind-the-scenes role in the September Thirtieth Movement fanned anti-China and anti-Chinese sentiments in Indonesia. In the months following the September Thirtieth Movement, Sino-Indonesian relations deteriorated sharply and mass demonstrations broke out across Indonesia at People's Republic of China embassies, consulates, and news agencies. The chapter then claims that the Suharto regime manufactured these claims to justify its anti-Communist purges.

Keywords:   September Thirtieth Movement, Indonesian army, Indonesian Communist Party, Beijing, Chinese government, Sino-Indonesian relations, Suharto regime, anti-Communist purges

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