This chapter identifies three generic drivers that affect the shape, pace, and direction of intelligence reform. The first consists of shifts in the strategic environment and the second driver of intelligence reform is technological change. Failure is the third, and often the most proximate, driver of intelligence reform. These three drivers forced the pace of intelligence reform in Japan in much the same way that they compelled reform elsewhere. This chapter observes how the drivers converge with the specific activities in which national intelligence communities are engaged—the “elements” of intelligence. It provides the historical and comparative framework for a subsequent analysis of the Japanese intelligence community.
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