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Empire's LaborThe Global Army That Supports U.S. Wars$

Adam Moore

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781501742170

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9781501742170.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM Cornell University Press SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.cornell.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Cornell University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in Cornell for personal use. date: 19 September 2021

(p.241) Index

(p.241) Index

Source:
Empire's Labor
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
AECOM, 68
Afghanistan:
Bagram Air Base, 57, 77–78, 81, 117, 140, 156, 175;
Bosnian laborers, 8, 55–58, 63, 175–76;
Camp Bastion, 170;
Camp Dwyer, 157;
Camp Leatherneck, 170;
contractor fatalities, 5, 8, 100, 175;
contractor workforce statistics, 2, 4, 194–95;
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) contracts, 29, 79–81;
DynCorp contracts, 8, 34, 56, 58, 61, 98, 100–102, 135, 140, 150, 153, 155–56, 175;
Filipino laborers, 11, 35, 41, 91, 115–23, 140;
Fluor contracts, 8, 34, 56, 62, 100–102, 135, 150, 153, 155–56, 172, 175, 180;
forward operating bases (FOBs), 2, 70, 81;
geographic challenges, 77;
Host Nation Trucking (HNT) contracts, 81–82;
Joint Contracting Command-Iraq/Afghanistan (JCC-I/A) contracts, 31–32;
Kandahar Airfield (KAF), 77, 81, 117, 122, 140–41, 146;
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR) contracts, 55–56, 59, 99–102, 159, 172, 175;
Kenyan contract labor, 19;
labor activism, 134, 139–40, 146;
labor trafficking, 30, 95, 106–9, 123;
Nizhny Pyandzh border crossing, 80;
Northern Distribution Network (NDN), 79–80;
Pakistani supply routes, 77–80;
Taliban presence, 81–83, 182;
TRANSCOM supplies, 79;
travel bans, 13, 35, 98, 107, 114–18;
troop levels, 79, 194;
truck convoy attacks, 82–83;
Turkey supply routes, 80;
United States invasion, 26, 56;
Uzbekistan supply routes, 80–81
Africa, Bernabe, 45
Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP), 26
Al Udeid Air Base, 48, 78, 104
Alargan Group, 112–13
Algeria, 78, 84–85, 191
Ali Al Salem Air Base, 26, 74–75
Amnesty International, 106
Anderson, Steven, 83
Anglo-European Services (AES), 43, 47, 90–91, 93–95, 97, 148
Ansar al-Sunna, 1–2
Antić, Nenad, 8
Appel, Hannah, 111–12
Aquino, Corazon, 185
Arba Minch drone base, 68–69, 86
Arcilla, Nicky, 43, 97
Arkel, 121, 155, 170
Armed Forces Journal, 83
Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), 73, 112–13
Army Military Command (AMC), 28, 77
Arroyo, Alexander, 77
Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal, 6, 36, 42, 46–47, 92, 166
Arroyo, Mikey, 115
ATCO Frontec, 140–41
Australia, 7
Avant, Deborah, 28
Aviano Air Base, 25–26
Azerbaijan, 78–80
Bagram Air Base, 57, 77–78, 81, 117, 140, 156, 175
Baguio mountain retreat, 39
Bahrain, 41, 68, 78
Baker, Catherine, 55, 60
Balad Air Base, 72–73, 75, 139, 146–47, 160, 165–66, 172–73, 183
Bangladesh, 108, 111, 137–38
Bechtel, 144
Belanger, Pierre, 77
Belknap, William, 20
Bender, Daniel, 37–38
Benghazi, 87
Benin, 84–85
Biković, Almir, 175–76
Bin Laden, Osama, 79
Bisharat, 113
Black, Samuel, 107, 124–25
Blackwater, 3, 126
Blazing Star, 93, 96
Bolduc, Donald, 194
Bonacich, Edna, 103
Boot, Max, 192 (p.242)
Bosnia:
camp installations, 52–54;
Eagle Base, 52, 54–55;
economic environment, 7, 49, 56–58, 61–64, 100, 175–79, 187–88;
Inter-Entity Boundary Line (IEBL), 52;
labor recruitment regulations, 98;
LOGCAP peacekeeping mission, 25–26, 28;
Lukavac region, 51–52, 54, 58, 61, 100–101, 175–76, 186;
military labor history, 11;
NATO bombing campaign, 25;
peacekeeping economy, 13, 52–55, 60, 63, 96;
Posavina region, 52;
Republika Srpska (RS), 52;
Tuzla region, 8, 17, 51–56, 58–59, 61, 63, 100–101, 157, 165, 174, 176, 179, 186;
unemployment rate, 49, 62–63, 100, 187–88;
wage levels, 49–50, 55, 57–58, 61, 63, 100, 189
Bosnian laborers:
Afghanistan contract work, 8, 55–58, 63, 175–76;
base privileges, 149;
career trajectories, 58–60, 186–87;
confidentiality agreements, 12;
contractor fatalities, 60, 175;
DynCorp contracts, 11, 90, 140, 152, 156, 161;
Ebola eradication support, 8, 17–18, 59;
employee benefits, 59–60, 98, 102, 184;
employment skill levels, 152;
Fluor contracts, 11, 125, 152, 156, 161;
International Committee of the Red Cross employment, 55;
Iraq contract work, 8, 55–58, 72, 102, 156, 175–76;
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR) contracts, 8, 11, 25–26, 49, 51–53, 55–56, 98–100, 152, 161;
marginalization, 50, 55–63, 98, 156–58, 185–89;
Office of the High Representative employment, 53;
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) employment, 53, 55;
peacekeeping efforts, 52–55, 60, 63, 159, 175, 195;
readjustment challenges, 50, 180–89;
recruiting process, 56, 91, 98–103;
United Nations (UN) employment, 53;
vector control efforts, 19;
Boxer Rebellion, 21
Brown & Root. See Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR)
Bureau of Insular Affairs, 37
Burkina Faso, 84, 88, 191
Burns and Roe, 41
Bush, George W., 49, 92
Cam Ranh Bay, 132
Cameroon, 84, 86, 102, 194
Camp Arifjan, 74–75
Camp Bastion, 170
Camp Bucca, 72, 138
Camp Buehring, 74–75
Camp Cedar II, 72, 75–76
Camp Cooke. See Taji Air Base
Camp Delta, 47, 72–73
Camp Dwyer, 157
camp followers, 10, 19–20
Camp Gilbert, 85–86
Camp Leatherneck, 170
Camp Lemonnier, 85, 132, 191
Camp Liberty, 70
Camp Patriot, 75
Camp Simba, 84, 86
Camp Singo, 87
Camp Spearhead, 75
Camp Speicher, 72, 75, 163
Camp Virginia, 74–76
Cannon Air Force Base, 68
Card Industries, 144–45, 154
Central African Republic, 85–86
Chad, 84, 88, 194
Chatterjee, Pratap, 11, 35
Cheney, Dick, 25
China, 21, 38, 42, 111, 125–26, 158
Chinese Exclusion Act, 38
Chisholm, Amanda, 189
Civil War, 9, 20
Clark Air Base, 40, 132
Clinton, Bill, 27–28
Cohen, William, 28
Cold War, 10, 12, 22, 24, 27–28, 40, 44, 67
Colombia, 28
Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan (CWC), 126
Common Access Card (CAC), 56, 152–55, 166
Construction Capabilities (CONCAP) program, 26
Cooperative Security Locations (CSLs), 87
cost reimbursement contracts, 29–30
Cowen, Deborah, 69, 103
Crawford, Debbie, 162–63
Croatia, 25, 28, 52
Cuba, 9, 20, 40
custodial service employment, 9, 39, 49, 94, 135, 151–52, 157, 170
Daoud & Partners, 1, 32, 113, 123
Darwin, John, 125
De la Cruz, Angelo, 6–7
Deby, Idriss, 88
Defense Contract Audit Agency, 30
Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA), 123, 126
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), 29–30, 68, 76, 79–81, 85, 94, 156 (p.243)
Defense Science Board Task Force, 27
Democratic Republic of Congo, 86
Department of Defense (DoD), 27, 30, 56, 73, 87, 106, 112–13, 123–24, 152
Department of Labor (Philippines), 45
Department of Labor (U.S.), 5
Department of State (DoS), 2–3, 6, 12, 74, 81, 94, 106, 108
Department of War, 37
Dickinson, Laura, 24
Diego Garcia, 41
Diendere, Gilbert, 88
dining facilities (DFACs), 56, 92–94, 96, 104, 108, 110, 121, 131, 134–38, 152, 154, 166, 169
Djibouti, 19, 41, 68, 84–85, 87, 132, 191
drones, 4, 18, 68–69, 79, 84–86, 89, 102, 191, 193
Dubai, 32, 34, 43, 59, 68, 91, 97, 101–2, 108–9, 116–22, 195
DynCorp:
Afghanistan contracts, 8, 34, 56, 58, 61, 98, 100, 135, 140, 150, 153, 155–56, 175;
Bosnian laborers employment, 11, 90, 98, 100, 103, 140, 152, 156, 161;
counternarcotic operations, 25–26;
East Timor contracts, 26;
employee benefits, 102;
Filipino laborers employment, 26;
hotels as recruiting bases, 101;
international scale, 33;
language proficiency test, 100;
LOGCAP contracts, 25–26, 33–34, 56, 100;
LOGCAP Poslovi discussions, 100;
tiered contracts, 57–58, 149–50, 155–57;
Eagle Base, 52, 54–55
East Timor, 26
Ebola virus, 8, 17–18, 59, 102
Ecuador, 26
Egypt, 78, 85–86, 136
Eichler, Maya, 27, 127
Endaya, Ricardo, 133–34
Endurance base. See Q-West base
Englehart, Tom, 73
Enloe, Cynthia, 193
Estonia, 78, 80
Estrada, Joseph, 42
Ethiopia, 68, 85–86, 193
Event Source, The, 112–13
Exchange Visitor Program (EVP), 44–45
Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, 142
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), 79–80
Fiji, 1, 112–13, 157, 169
Filipino laborers:
Afghanistan contract work, 11, 35, 41, 91, 115–23, 140;
agricultural focus, 38–39;
Baguio construction project, 39;
confidentiality agreements, 12;
contractor fatalities, 5;
documentary accounts, 11, 35;
DynCorp contracts, 26, 140;
Exchange Visitor Program (EVP), 44–45;
exclusionary immigration policies, 38;
Guam contract work, 45;
Guantanamo construction efforts, 19, 26, 40–41, 47;
Gulf Catering Company (GCC) employment, 34, 94, 106, 110, 112, 138–39;
Hawaii sugar plantations, 9, 37–39, 44;
international reach, 40–46;
Iraq contract work, 11, 35, 41, 43, 46–48, 91–98, 108–9, 115–23, 134–41;
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR) contracts, 26, 90–91;
Kulak Construction Company employment, 94, 110, 112–13, 121, 138;
Kuwait contract work, 41, 43, 95, 97, 108;
labor activism, 132–33, 135–41, 144–49, 154;
labor trafficking, 10, 107–9, 114, 123;
Navy workforce contributions, 39–40, 44;
Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) classification, 42–43;
Philippine Scouts, 39;
Prime Projects International (PPI) employment, 34–35, 43, 47, 90–97, 115–18, 121–22, 133, 138–40, 143–48, 153;
Public Warehousing Company (PWC) employment, 6, 94, 96;
racial conflicts, 38–39;
readjustment challenges, 184;
recruiting agencies’ role, 12, 34, 42–43, 47–48, 91–98, 102, 104, 115, 147–48, 159;
Serka Group employment, 32, 34, 92–97, 110, 115, 117–18, 121, 134–37, 147;
social status, 38–40, 165–67, 184–85;
truck drivers, 9, 94;
Tydings-McDuffie Act, 39;
U.S. nationals status, 38–39;
Vietnam contract work, 45;
wages, 35, 39–40, 45–46, 92, 95, 115, 134–41, 146, 153, 184. See also Philippines
Filkins, Dexter, 14
First Kuwaiti General Contracting, 94, 108–10, 133–34
fixed price contracts, 29–30
Flores, Alfred, 45
Fluor:
Afghanistan contracts, 8, 34, 56, 62, 100, 135, 150, 153, 155–56, 172, 175, 180;
Bosnian laborers employment, 11, 100, 125, 152, 156, 161;
Ebola eradication efforts, 17–18, 59, 102;
employee benefits, 59, 102;
hotels as recruiting bases, 101–2;
international scale, 33;
LOGCAP contracts, 17, 33–34, 56, 100, 191–92;
LOGCAP Poslovi discussions, 100;
Operation United Assistance (OUA) involvement, 17–18;
tiered contracts, 57–58, 149–50, 155–57;
wages, 57, 103, 152–53, 156
FOB Brassfield Mora, 72–73 (p.244)
FOB Caldwell, 72–73
FOB Delta, 72–73
FOB Echo, 72–73
FOB McHenry, 71–73
FOB Paliwoda, 72–73
FOB Scania, 72–73
forward operating bases (FOBs), 2, 70–73, 81
forward operating locations (FOLs), 85
France, 22, 52, 57, 68, 85
Friedman, Milton, 27
Gabon, 85, 87
Gates, Robert, 17
Georgia, 78, 80, 85
Germany, 57, 68, 78, 80, 85, 133
Ghana, 85, 87
Government Accountability Office (GAO), 12
Grace, J. Peter, 27
Graham, Lindsey, 191–92
Grant, Ulysses, 20
Greene, Julie, 1, 9, 132
Greenspoint Mall, 99–100
Gregory, Derek, 5, 83
Guam, 26, 40–41, 45
Guantanamo Bay detention camp, 9, 19, 26, 40–41, 47
Guevarra, Anna, 168, 185
Guinea, 8, 17, 85
Gulf Catering Company (GCC), 32, 34, 94, 106, 110, 112–13, 132, 138–39, 152
Gulf War, 23–24, 96
Haiti, 25
Harlan, John Marshall, 36
Hawaii sugar plantations, 9, 37–39, 44
Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association (HSPA), 37
Helliwell, Neil, 43, 92, 95
Hilman, Oscar, 165–66
Hirschman, Albert, 142
Holmes, Amy Austin, 133
Hosseini, Khaled, 183
Host Country Nationals (HCNs). See Local Nationals (LNs)
Host Nation Trucking (HNT), 81–82
Human Rights Watch, 106
Hungary, 25, 52
India:
contract work wages, 137;
contractor recruiting, 10, 34, 105–6;
DynCorp contracts, 140;
employment skill levels, 152;
foodservice employment, 9, 35;
Gulf petro-states employment opportunities, 43;
hill station construction, 39;
labor activism, 131, 133, 136–38;
labor trafficking, 10, 105, 112–13;
Najlaa International Catering Services recruiting, 108;
Pakistan, rivalry with, 79;
recruiting agencies, 34, 112–13, 159;
Subhash Vijay Company, 106, 112–13, 119;
transportation employment, 6;
travel bans, 5–6, 83, 105, 114;
United States, relations with, 79, 106
Indonesia, 42, 97
Inland Petroleum Distribution System (IPDS), 76
intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), 68, 86
Inter-Entity Boundary Line (IEBL), 52
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 141
International Committee of the Red Cross, 55
Iran, 75, 77–78, 85, 194
Iraq:
Ansar al-Sunna presence, 1–2;
Balad Air Base, 72–73, 75, 139, 146–47, 160, 165–66, 172–73, 183;
Bosnian laborers, 8, 55–58, 72, 102, 175–76;
Camp Bucca, 72, 138;
Camp Cedar II, 72, 75–76;
Camp Delta, 47, 72–73;
Camp Speicher, 72, 75, 163;
contractor fatalities, 5, 100;
contractor workforce statistics, 2, 4, 31;
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) contracts, 29–30, 76, 81, 94, 156;
Filipino laborers, 11, 35, 41, 43, 46–48, 91–98, 108–9, 115–23, 134–38;
First Kuwaiti General Contracting employment, 94;
foodservice logistics, 29–30, 81, 93–94;
forward operating bases (FOBs), 70–73, 75;
Gulf Catering Company (GCC) employment, 32, 34, 94, 106, 112, 132, 138–39, 152;
Inland Petroleum Distribution System (IPDS), 76;
Iraq Projects Business Development (IPBD), 32, 152;
ISIS presence, 48, 101;
Joint Contracting Command-Iraq/Afghanistan (JCC-I/A) contracts, 31–32, 73;
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR) contracts, 8, 29–34, 55–56, 70–71, 90–96, 99, 135–37, 150–53, 159;
Kulak Construction Company employment, 32, 94, 112–13, 121, 138, 143–44, 152, 172;
Kuwait logistical support, 25, 74–77, 81;
labor activism, 134–41, 144–48;
labor trafficking, 30, 90, 95, 105–9, 123;
Local Nationals (LNs) employment, 31, 72–73;
Nisour Square massacre, 3, 126;
Operation Desert Storm, 24, 76;
Philippines troop support, 7;
Prime Projects International (PPI) employment, 32, 34–35, 43, 47, 90, 92–97, 116–18, 121–22, 133, 138–40, 143–48, 154–55, 177;
Q-West base, 72, 75, 105–6, 112, 134;
Saudi Arabia, relations with, (p.245) 25;
Serka Group employment, 32, 34, 92–97, 110, 118–21, 134–39, 143, 147, 176–77;
Taji Air Base, 72, 133;
Tal Afar Air Base, 72, 134, 136;
Tallil Air Base, 72, 75–76, 150–52, 186;
Third Country Nationals (TCNs) employment, 31, 72–73, 106, 114;
travel bans, 5–7, 35, 47, 74, 83, 91, 96–98, 105, 107, 114–18;
truck convoy attacks, 5–7, 83;
United States invasion, 1–2, 26, 46, 92, 192;
Victory Base Complex, 70–72, 75, 95, 121, 131, 138, 146, 154, 170–71, 173
Iraq Projects Business Development (IPBD), 32
ISIS, 48, 101
Italy, 25, 78, 85, 87
J.A. Jones Construction, 22
Jamaher Contracting Company, 144
Japan, 22, 38, 40, 125
Jasarevic, Larisa, 56
Jennings, Kathleen, 53
Johnson, Lyndon, 23
Joint Contracting Command-Iraq/Afghanistan (JCC-I/A), 31–32, 73
Jordan, 1, 32, 76–77, 113
K2 (Karshi-Khanabad Air Base), 78–79, 81
Kamat, Anjali, 11, 107, 124–25
Kandahar Airfield (KAF), 77, 81, 117, 122, 140–41, 146
Kaplan, Robert, 8
Karimov, Islam, 81
Karshi-Khanabad Air Base (K2), 78–79, 81
Karzai, Hamid, 83
Kazakhstan, 79–80
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR):
Afghanistan contracts, 55–56, 59, 99–102, 159, 172, 175;
Aviano Air Base services, 25;
Bosnian laborers employment, 8, 11, 25–26, 49, 51–53, 55–56, 98–100, 152, 161;
Croatia contracts, 25;
Ecuador contracts, 26;
employee benefits, 59, 153–54;
employment statistics, 32;
Filipino laborers employment, 26, 90–91;
fraud charges, 29–30;
Greenspoint Mall deployment center, 99–100;
Guam contracts, 26;
hotels as recruiting bases, 101–2;
Hungary contracts, 25;
Kosovars employment, 26;
Kuwait contracts, 26, 99;
LOGCAP contracts, 25–26, 28–29, 33–34, 56, 96, 102, 153;
LOGCAP Poslovi discussions, 100;
logistics services offered, 70–71;
M. W. Kellogg merger, 29;
Macedonians employment, 26;
Najlaa International Catering Services contracts, 108, 110–11;
Somalia contracts, 25;
subcontractor usage, 31–32, 34–35, 72–73, 90–92, 94, 107, 112–14, 156;
Third Country Nationals (TCNs) employment, 72–73;
vacation policies, 102;
Vietnam contracts, 23;
wages, 35, 55, 57–58, 61, 90, 99, 102, 152–54, 156;
workforce demographics, 32
Kennedy, Paul, 37
Kenya, 1, 19, 41, 84–85, 140, 156–57, 169
Khabari, 74–76, 81
Kinsey, Christopher, 19
Kipling, Rudyard, 36
Kite Runner, The, 183
Knežević, Gordana, 63
Kony, Joseph, 18
Korean War, 21–23
Kosovo, 4, 7–9, 26, 52, 57, 73, 96, 159, 169, 195
Kulak Construction Company, 32, 94, 110, 112–13, 121, 138, 143–44, 152, 172
Kuwait:
Alargan Group, 112–13;
Ali Al Salem Air Base, 26, 74–75;
Camp Arifjan, 74–75;
Camp Buehring, 74–75;
Camp Patriot, 75;
Camp Spearhead, 75;
Camp Virginia, 74–76;
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) contracts, 29–30, 74;
Filipino laborers, 41, 43, 95, 97, 108;
Gulf Catering Company (GCC), 32, 34, 106, 110, 112–13, 138–39, 152;
Iraq logistical support reliance, 25, 74–77, 81;
kafala labor laws, 142;
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR) contracts, 26, 99;
Khabari border crossing, 74–76, 81;
LOGCAP security support, 25;
military fuel supply, 75–77;
Najlaa International Catering Services, 108, 110–11;
Navistar border crossing, 74–75;
oil industry, 96;
Public Warehousing Company (PWC), 6, 29–30, 74;
Tamimi Global Company, 32;
transit route security, 77;
travel ban enforcement, 6–7, 74, 114;
truck convoy attacks, 5–7
Kyrgyzstan, 79–81
L-3 Communications, 34
Lamb, Mike, 96–97
laundry service employment, 10, 18, 51, 68, 70–71, 94–95, 147, 152, 157, 169
Li, Darrly, 111
Liberia, 8, 17–18, 104
Libya, 84, 87
Ligot, Cayetano, 37
Liliuokalani, Queen, 37
Lipman, Jana, 37–38
Lithuania, 80 (p.246)
Local Nationals (LNs), 2–3, 10, 31–32, 50, 55–56, 72–73, 94, 159–60
Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP):
Africa support services contracts, 17;
Aviano Air Base operations, 25–26;
Bosnia contract work, 25, 51–52, 98–99;
Bosnia peacekeeping mission, 25;
Brown & Root report recommendations, 25;
core services, 70–71;
Haiti humanitarian intervention, 25;
international scale, 18, 25, 34;
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR) contracts, 25–26, 28–29, 33–34, 56, 96;
Kuwait security support, 25;
LOGCAP I contract, 25;
LOGCAP II contract, 25;
LOGCAP III contract, 29–30, 34, 57, 96, 98–99, 102, 153, 163;
LOGCAP IV contract, 33–34, 56–57, 98, 100, 102, 156, 160, 163, 191–92;
LOGCAP Poslovi web forum, 100–101;
origins, 18, 24, 26;
Rwanda humanitarian intervention, 25;
Saudi Arabia security support, 25;
scope transformation, 24–25;
Somalia humanitarian intervention, 18, 25
Lord’s Resistance Army, 18, 86
Louis Berger, 144, 154–55
Luzon Stevedoring, 45
M. W. Kellogg, 29. See also Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR)
Macedonia, 7–8, 57, 72, 157, 159, 169
Making the Empire Work, 37–38
Malaysia, 42–43
Mali, 84, 88, 194
Manas Air Base, 78–79
Manning, Chelsea, 160
Marcos, Ferdinand, 40, 42, 44–46
Mauldin, Bill, 21–22
Mauritania, 84, 88
Mayberry, Rory, 108–9
McCahon, Sam, 107–8, 114
McCoy, Alfred, 35
McNamara, Robert, 22
Meridian Services Agency, 112–13
Mexican-American War, 20
Military Bases Agreement, 39–40
Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (MEJA), 126–27
Military Sealift Command (MSC), 69
Miller, T. Christian, 11
Moody, William, 158
Moon Light Consultant, 113, 119
Morale, Welfare and Recreation (MWR) facilities, 51, 55–56, 70, 94, 142, 152, 155, 165–66, 169
Morning Star for Recruitment and Manpower Supply, 113
Morrison-Knudsen, 22, 45
Muslims, 1, 5–6
Najlaa International Catering Services, 108, 110–11, 123, 126, 143
Nasa Services International, 32, 112–13
National Seaman Board (NSB), 42
NATO, 25, 40, 77, 82, 101
Navistar, 74–75
NCL Holdings, 83
Nepal:
anti-Muslim riots, 1, 5–6;
contractor fatalities, 2, 5, 90, 123;
contractor recruiting, 1–2, 10, 34;
labor activism, 131, 133, 138;
labor trafficking, 10, 90, 112, 123;
Moon Light Consultant, 113;
Najlaa International Catering Services recruiting, 108;
recruiting agencies, 34, 113, 159;
security contractors research, 189;
travel bans, 5–6, 114
Nigeria, 84
Ninoy Aquino International Airport, 115–17
Nisour Square, 3, 126
Nizhny Pyandzh, 80
North Korea, 194
Northern Distribution Network (NDN), 79–80
Nuhanović, Nedim, 175
Obama, Barak, 17–18, 56, 79
Office of the High Representative, 53
Okinawa, 40–41, 45
Operation Desert Storm, 24, 76
Operation United Assistance (OUA), 8, 17–18, 86
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), 53, 55
Other Country Nationals (OCNs), 2–3, 56–57, 156. See also Third Country Nationals (TCNs)
Overseas Employment Development Board (OEDB), 42
Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW), 42–43, 131, 184–85. See also Filipino laborers
Owens, John, 109
Pacific Architects and Engineers (PAE), 22
Pakistan, 43, 77–80, 82, 122, 152, 166, 169, 175, 195
Pampanga, 90, 93, 97, 116, 174
Panama Canal, 9, 104, 132, 157–59
Pangilinan, Francis, 7
Parsons, 144, 154, 181
Parsons, Charles, 45 (p.247)
Pentagon, 22, 57, 69, 73, 102, 156, 191
People Power Revolution, 40
Perini, 26
Philippines:
Angelo de la Cruz kidnapping, 6–7;
Bureau of Labor, 37, 44;
Clark Air Base, 40, 132;
Department of Labor, 45;
economic environment, 42, 174, 177–79, 185, 189–90;
educational opportunities, 177, 189–90;
independence, 36–37, 39, 44;
Iraq invasion support, 7, 36, 46–48;
labor export economic strategy, 12, 36–37, 41–46, 90, 184–85;
labor remittance revenue, 42;
Military Bases Agreement, 39–40;
military labor history, 11, 21, 41, 44;
National Seaman Board (NSB), 42;
Ninoy Aquino International Airport, 115–17;
Overseas Employment Development Board (OEDB), 42;
Pampanga region, 90, 93, 97, 116, 174;
People Power Revolution, 40;
Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA), 42, 92, 97, 104, 148, 184–85, (see also Filipino laborers);
Subic Bay Naval Base, 40, 132;
trade hub, 41;
travel bans, 5–7, 35, 47, 83, 91, 93, 96–98, 107, 114–21, 184;
United States, relations with, 12, 20, 36–39, 44–46
Phinney, David, 11, 35
Poblete, JoAnna, 38
Posavina, 52
Post Exchange (PX), 53, 55–56, 112, 151–52, 166, 169
Prime Projects International (PPI), 32, 34–35, 43, 47, 90–97, 110, 115–18, 121, 131, 133, 138–40, 143–48, 154–55, 177
private military companies (PMCs), 2–5, 9, 12, 32, 61, 101
Public Warehousing Company (PWC), 6, 29–30, 74, 94, 96
Puerto Rico, 9, 38, 158
Qatar, 41, 43, 48, 104, 142
quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), 55, 125, 152
Q-West base, 72, 75, 105–6, 112, 134
Ramos, Fidel, 42
Ramstein Air Base, 68
Raustialia, Kal, 126
Raymond International, 22
Readiness Management Support LC, 26
Reagan, Ronald, 24, 26
Red Horse engineers, 52
Republika Srpska (RS), 52
revolution in military affairs (RMA), 4–5
Revolutionary War, 19, 23
RMK-BRJ, 22–23, 41, 45, 132
RMR Construction, 119
Rodriguez, Robyn Magalit, 41, 43–44
Romelo, Robert, 47
Roosevelt, Theodore, 158
Roston, Aram, 82–83
Roxas, Manuel, 45
Rumsfeld, Donald, 7, 23, 28
Russell, Majors, and Waddell, 20
Russia, 52, 78, 80, 85
Rwanda, 25, 85
Sallyport, 61
Sanogo, Amadou Haya, 88
Saudi Arabia, 24–25, 43, 92–93, 95, 97, 142, 144, 176, 181
Saudi Catering & Contracting Company (SCCC), 24
Seabees, 52
Senegal, 18, 84, 87
September 11 terror attacks, 5, 7, 14, 27, 79, 176, 193, 195
Seven Seas Shipchandlers, 68, 85–86
Shaw, Ian, 193–94
Shaw, Martin, 193
Shinseki, Eric, 4
Sierra Leone, 1, 8, 17, 85
Sigelman, Lee, 28
Simpson, Cam, 11, 112
Singapore, 41, 117
Smith, Charles, 30
Somalia, 18, 25, 68, 86, 102
Someone Else’s War, 168
Sopko, John, 82
South Korea, 22–23, 43
South Sudan, 86
Spain, 20, 36, 85, 87
Spanish-American War, 20, 36
Special Operations Command, Africa (SOCAFRICA), 84, 194
Special Operations Consulting-Security Management Group (SOC-SMG), 166
Special Operations Forces (SOF), 4, 18, 84–87, 102, 191–94
Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force, Crisis Response (SPMAGTF-CR), 87
Sri Lanka, 34, 43, 108, 133, 159, 166, 169
Stars & Stripes, 73
Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA), 40, 126, 132
Stevens, Christopher, 87
Stevens, John, 158
Stillman, Sarah, 11, 35, 109–10, 131–32, 139, 168 (p.248)
Stoler, Ann Laura, 9
Subhash Vijay Company, 106, 112–13, 119
Subic Bay Naval Base, 40, 132
sugar plantations, 9, 37–39, 44
Supreme, 170, 179
sutlers, 10, 19
Syria, 48, 101
Taft, William Howard, 21
Taiwan, 43
Taji Air Base, 72, 133
Tajikistan, 78, 80
Tal Afar Air Base, 72, 134, 136
Taliban, 81–83, 182
Tallil Air Base, 72, 75–76, 150–52, 186
Talon, The, 55
Tamimi Global Company, 32
Thailand, 42
Third Country Nationals (TCNs), 2–3, 6, 31, 34–35, 45, 56–57, 72–73, 106, 110–11, 114, 123–24, 131–35, 142, 146, 149, 153–56, 159–63, 166, 169–70, 174, 194
Thorpe, George, 67
Total S.A., 68
Trafficking in Persons Report, 108
travel bans, 5–7, 35, 47, 83, 91, 93, 96–97, 105, 107, 114–21, 184
Truman, Harry S., 39
Trump, Donald, 162
Tulip Revolution, 81
Tunisia, 78, 84–85, 125
Turkey:
Afghanistan supply routes, 80;
contract work wages, 135;
Harbur Gate crossing point, 73, 75;
Iraq logistical support reliance, 72, 76–77, 134–37;
Kellogg, Brown & Root (KBR) labor source, 72;
Kulak Construction Company, 32, 94, 110, 112–13, 138, 143–44, 152, 172;
labor activism, 133;
Nasa Services International, 32, 112–13;
Serka Group, 32, 34, 92–97, 104, 110, 115, 117–18, 121, 134–37, 147, 176–77;
transit route security, 77;
truck convoy attacks, 5
Tydings-McDuffie Act, 39
Typhoon Paka, 26
Uganda, 84–87, 102
Uniform Code of Military Justice, 126–27
United Arab Emirates (UAE), 41, 43, 95, 101, 121, 142
United Kingdom, 1, 57, 155
United Nations (UN), 17–18, 22–23, 26, 53
United States Africa Command (AFRICOM), 33, 84–88, 191
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 2, 27
United States Central Command (CENTCOM), 2–4, 31, 33, 35, 48, 74, 99, 102, 107, 114, 159, 165, 168, 193
United States European Command (EUCOM), 33
United States Indo-Pacific Command (INDOPACOM), 33
United States Northern Command (NORTH-COM), 33
United States Southern Command (SOUTH-COM), 33
United States Transportation Command (TRANSCOM), 69, 79, 87
Up Front, 21
Uzbekistan, 79–81, 101
Victory Base Complex, 70–72, 75, 95, 121, 131, 138, 146, 154, 170–71, 173
Vietnam, 111
Vietnam Builders, 23
Vietnam War, 4, 19, 21–24, 28, 41–42, 45–46, 132
Wake Island, 40–41
Wang, Lee, 11, 168
Wardak, Abdul Rahim, 83
Watan Risk Management, 83
Willoughby, William, 36
Wilson, Jake, 103
Wise, Amanda, 113
Woods, Colleen, 45
World Health Organization, 17
World War I, 21–22
World War II, 4, 21–22, 41
Yugoslavia, 52–53, 176, 186