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Violence as UsualPolicing and the Colonial State in German Southwest Africa$

Marie Muschalek

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781501742859

Published to Cornell Scholarship Online: May 2020

DOI: 10.7591/cornell/9781501742859.001.0001

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(p.251) Index

(p.251) Index

Source:
Violence as Usual
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
addresses and salutes, 50
Adhikari, Mohamed, 41
affective states, 73, 162
African policemen
bureaucracy and, 71–72, 107
cooperation with German policemen, 9, 58, 99, 118–119, 138–139, 152
corporal punishment of, 53–54, 67–68
cultural backgrounds of, 17–23
families of, 34–35, 142
guns and, 12, 54, 62, 86, 96–97
importance of, 57–58, 72, 95–96, 143
masculinity and, 21–22, 35–38
military habitus of, 63–65
patron-client relationships of, 24–25, 65–66
personal backgrounds of, 62, 65
proportion of in force, 4, 57–58
recruitment of, 23–26
regulations and, 52–54
similarities to German policemen, 42, 72–73
skills of, 63–65
war’s impact on, 26, 46
age and seniority, 18–19, 23, 36, 64–65
Algeria, 57
Anderson, David, 159
anger, 122–123
appearances. See forms and appearances
Arendt, Hannah, 8
arrest rates, 210n58, 211n67
backgrounds of policemen
African, 17–23, 62, 65
German, 26–32, 43, 53, 63, 72–73
Bald, Detlef, 31
bambuse system, 24–26
bare-handed violence, avoidance of, 97
Baster people
police unit of, 58
social structures of, 18–23
stereotypes of, 133, 155
beating and hitting (by hand), 77–78, 97, 121–123, 150–151. See also whips
“big men,” 39, 183n179
Boers, 155
boredom and tediousness, 112–114
Bourdieu, Pierre, 15, 16
boxing, 97
British colonies, comparisons with, 53, 57
bureaucracy
hierarchies and, 106–107
impact of on violent practices, 162–163
to legitimize violence, 12, 44, 68–71, 78–79, 82–84, 91, 161
for operations, 105–108
whips, silence on, 76
around workers, 141, 142 See also manuals; rules and regulations
Bushmen/San, 93–95, 133–134, 138, 139
cattle ownership, 19–20, 21
cattle plague, 3, 23
Chickering, Roger, 40–41
children
portrayal of Africans as, 36, 37–38
violence against, 37, 78, 90, 134
climate, 59–60
colonial administration, structure of, 47–48
colonial state, studies of, 6–8
common sense, 13, 125–126, 162
“constructive/educative” violence, 132, 150–152, 160
crime prevention, 101–102
Damara people, 18–23, 133
deaths
genocide, 3–4, 44–47, 131
justifications made for, 133, 134
from police treatment, 1–2, 83, 137
during raids on villages, 139
deceptive practices, 117–120
de Certeau, Michel, 123–124, 128–129, 162 (p.252)
discretionary power, 124–126
disease and illness, 59–60
distance. See remote stations
duties and role of police, 100–106, 108, 127–128
“educative/constructive” violence, 132, 150–152, 160
Eigensinn, 114, 128–129, 162
emotions, 37, 73, 120–123
exploration and surveying, 103, 111–113figs
families, 32–35, 142
fear, 120–121
fetters, 81–85
food supplies, 152–154
forced labor. See labor (forced)
forms and appearances
emotions and, 121–122
military, 50, 62–66, 161
Fürsorge, 157
genocide, 3–4, 44–47, 131
German policemen
backgrounds of, 26–32, 43, 53, 63, 72–73
cooperation with African policemen, 9, 58, 99, 118–119, 138–139, 152
marriage and, 32–34
masculinity and, 35–38
proportion of in force, 4
recruitment of, 27–32, 58–59
Goldberg, Ann, 68
guns
African policemen and, 12, 54, 62, 86, 96–97
bureaucracy and, 71, 91
German policemen and, 86–97
improvised use of, 89–91
justifications made for shooting Africans, 90–97
training in use of, 62, 86–89, 96
types and quality used, 85–86, 88
as valued tools, 20–21, 23
Headrick, Daniel, 74
Henrichsen, Dag, 44–45
Herero people, 3, 4, 18–23, 175n46
hitting and beating (by hand), 77–78, 97, 121–123, 150–151
Hobsbawm, Eric, 164
homosocial groups
in komando units, 21–22
lack of in stationary groups, 104
within police force, 35, 65–66
at remote stations, 104–105
honor
bureaucratic correctness and, 12, 44, 68–71, 91, 161
concept, 15–17
corporal punishment and, 53–54
daily building of, 8–9, 69
by duty and service, 36–37
emotions and, 120–123
military form and, 62–66
precolonial African, 22, 23, 35–36
as shared moral code, 160
horses, 20–21, 23
hunting, 87–89, 138
identity formation
for African policemen, 17–26, 34–36, 38–42, 63–66
background socioeconomic structures, 18–23, 26–32
by class and status, 11–12
for German policemen, 26–42
marital status and, 32–35
masculinity and, 21–22, 35–38
military backgrounds, 26–32, 43, 63, 65
motivations for joining and, 18–23, 28–29
status anxiety and, 23, 25, 28–29, 31–32, 38–42, 64
use of term, 171n1
war, impact of, 26, 44–47
Iliffe, John, 16, 21, 23, 35–36
illness and disease, 59–60
improvisation
authorization for, 156–157
bureaucracy to regularize, 82–84, 97
colonial state as based on, 3, 9, 99, 160, 161, 162
in distributing workers, 146–148
in gun use, 89–91, 96
as organizational culture, 13
as regular practice, 129
in shackling, 81–82
initiation, 23, 46
inspection visits, 50, 51fig
instruction manual, 49–55, 89
interpretation/translation, 53, 57–58, 72
interrogations, 37, 137
irritation, as justification for violence, 121–122
isolation, 115 (p.253)
judiciary, 159–160
jujitsu, 75, 87, 97
Justi, Johann Heinrich Gottlob von, 100
justifications made for violence, 79–80, 81, 89–97, 121–122, 133, 134
Kenya, 57
kinship/lineage, 18, 19, 23
komando units, 20–23
Kundrus, Birthe, 35, 177n101
labor
capture of Africans for, 90, 103, 110, 119–120, 137–140, 143–144
distribution of workers, 140–148
forced nature of, 131, 141–142
as police responsibility, 13
police violence and labor efficiency, 80, 85
“proper treatment” of workers, 145, 147–148, 149, 152–156
protective role of state, 132
racist ideology and, 133–135
requests for police to beat workers, 77–78, 150
as state goal, 5–6
supervision and disciplining of, 148–157
labor contracts, 141
legal role, 108, 159–160
libel suits, 68–69
lineage/kinship, 18, 19, 23
logistical challenges, 59–61
Lüdtke, Alf, 114, 127, 128–129, 162
malaria, 60
male bonding. See homosocial groups
Manning, Peter, 210n58
manpower levels, 56–57
manual, 49–55, 89
maps, hand drawn, 111–113figs
marriage, 32–35
masculine identity formation, 21–22, 35–38
Mazower, Mark, 164
militarism, 31–32
military, the, relationship with police, 56, 138
military backgrounds of police, 26–32, 43, 63, 65
military forms and appearances, 50, 62, 63–66, 161
military institution, police as
as military and civilian both, 12, 43–44, 48, 161
in operating methods, 127
training and, 87, 88
mimeomorphic skills, 87, 88–89
mimicry, 63–64
mission statement, 101–102
mixed-race men, 41
mobility, 22, 23, 131, 143
Monjardet, Dominique, 98
Nama people
genocide against, 4
resistance by, 3
social structures of, 18–23
stereotypes of, 133, 134
narratives rationalizing violence, 79–80, 81, 89–97, 121–122, 133, 134
NCOs
backgrounds of, 26–32
pay of, 31, 179n118
training of, 179n115
Oorlam-Afrikaners, 20
“oral” society stereotype, 107
organizational structure, 48–49, 55–56
passes/passports for natives, 46, 107, 117, 126, 158–159
pastoral life (African precolonial), 19–20, 22
paternal right of chastisement, 77, 135–137, 148–149, 150
patrol logs, 102, 110–113, 137, 139
patrols
activities during, 37, 108–120, 137
deceptive practices during, 117–120
discretionary power and, 124–126
emotions during, 120–123
meeting people during, 115–117
occupational culture and, 110
patron-client relationships
within police force, 24–25
precolonial, 19, 22
pay
of NCOs, 31, 179n118
of police, 38–39
Pinker, Stephen, 164
plainclothes operations, 117–118
police
concept of, 98, 100–101
role and duties of, 100–106, 108, 127–128
as the state, 161
Police Zone, xivfig, 4, 111fig, 190n105
polimorphic skills, 87, 88–89
Prein, Philipp, 22
prisoners, 141–142
“proper treatment,” 146–147, 149, 152–157 (p.254)
racism and racialization
guns, use of on Africans, 89–97
hierarchies and violence, 67, 74–75, 76–77, 80–81, 162
hunting parallels, 88–89, 138
individual policing power of whites, 158–159
masculinity and, 37–38
“proper treatment” and, 155
reality as challenge to, 95–97
regulations on treatment of natives, 51–54, 89–90, 95
shackles, use of on Africans, 84–85
violence justification narratives and, 67–68, 79–80, 134–135
whips, use of on Africans, 76, 81 See also stereotypes of Africans
Rafalski, Hans, 101
rationalizations for violence, 79–80, 81, 89–97, 121–122, 133, 134
recruitment
of African policemen, 23–26, 63
of German policemen, 27–32, 58–59, 63
remote stations
independence of, 54, 55, 60–61
manpower levels at, 57
patrols from, 104–105, 108–120
photos, 105fig, 109fig
restraining of targets. See shackles
retroactive authorization, 69–70
retroactive justification, 91, 93
“righteous anger,” 122–123
rituals, 17
role and duties of police, 100–106, 108, 127–128
rules and regulations
on gun use, 89–90, 92, 95
instruction manual, 49–55, 89
lack of for rank-and-file, 99
mixed sources of, 48–49
on punishing workers, 135–137
on whipping, 76–79 See also bureaucracy
rural areas. See remote stations
sadism, 123
salutes and addresses, 50
San/Bushmen, targeting of, 93–95, 133–134, 138, 139
Schwirck, Harry, 159–160
Seigel, Micol, 127
“self-defense” justification, 89, 91–93
seniority and age, 18–19, 23, 36, 64–65
settler colonies, 4–5, 130–131
settlers
capturing of forced workers by, 139, 143–144
competition among for workers, 131
gun culture among, 86
police, relationship with, 115–117, 140, 143–157
state, competition with, 4–5, 6
violence by, 143–144, 150–151, 158
war’s impact on, 45–46
shackles, 81–85
shame, 121
siege mentality, 115
Simmel, Georg, 15–16, 17
sjamboks (whips), 1, 76–81, 121, 197n9
slavery, 130
solidarity, 115, 174n35, 212n79. See also homosocial groups
staff shortages, 56–57
statehood, models of, 6
stationary procedures, 104
status
access to violence and, 21, 25, 28, 75
anxiety about and identity formation, 23, 25, 28–29, 31–32, 38–42, 64
class and, 11–12
precolonial structures and, 17–23
stereotypes of Africans
as childlike/immature, 36, 37–38, 52
of “natural” recidivists, 116
as “oral” society, 107
on suitability for domestication, 133–134
on suitability of corporal punishment, 67–68, 79–80, 134–135
Stoler, Ann, 73
suicides, 1–2
surveying and exploration, 103, 111–113figs
tacit knowledge, 87, 88–89
territory and beat, 110, 209n54
tools of violence
bare-handed violence, avoidance of, 97
beating and hitting, 121–123, 150–151
shackles, 81–85
sjamboks (whips), 1, 76–81, 121, 197n9
status hierarchy and, 12, 75 See also guns
training
general, 61–62, 73
on gun use, 62, 86–89, 96 (p.255)
translation/interpretation, 53, 57–58, 72
truck system (payment in kind), 152
uniforms, 50, 64
deceptive nonuse of, 117–118
Van Maanen, John, 210n65
violence
acceptance of in police force, 37–38
bureaucraticization to legitimize, 12, 44, 68–71, 78–79, 82–84, 91, 161
“constructive/educative,” 132, 150–152, 160
cultural familiarity with, 20–23, 31–32
“doing it right,” 8, 12, 99, 128, 136–137, 143, 157
as easy solution, 13
example cases: guns, 90, 91, 151;
shackles, 83; whips, 1–2, 77–78, 121, 128, 151
justifications made for, 79–80, 81, 89–97, 121–122, 133, 134
legal rationalization of, 12
between police, 66–67
policing as violence work, 127–128
as productive, 8, 9–10
racial hierarchies and, 67, 74–75, 76–77, 80–81, 162
by settlers, 143–144, 150–151, 158
status, and access to, 21, 25, 28, 75
symbolic power and, 63
as tool to capture and discipline workers, 133–140 See also tools of violence
wage labor, African, 152–155
wages. See pay
war and genocide, 3–4, 44–47, 131
warrior identities, 21–22, 64
Weber, Max, 68
whips (sjamboks), 1, 76–81, 121, 197n9
women
marriage and, 32–35
violence against, 37
work contracts, 141
workers. See labor
working conditions, 59–61
Zollmann, Jakob, 6, 68, 72, 132, 204n118, 216n12