This chapter deals with Russian responses to the popularization of the simplistic, negative constructions of the Russian Orthodox Church in the mid-nineteenth century. It focuses mainly on the period between the revolutions of 1848 to 1849 and the First Vatican Council from 1869 to 1870. It also compares the Orthodoxy's public image as portrayed by westerners and as imagined by Russian publicists. The chapter explores the circumstances under which westerners, concerned about the fate of the papacy, the Ottoman Empire, Poland, and Russian imperial power, constructed a reductionist view of the Russian Orthodox Church, conflating it with the state. By creating caricatures of Eastern Christianity in general and a bogeyman of the Russian Church, the chapter reviews important cross-sections of educated western European society that ostracized Russia from what they considered to be the Christian and civilized ecumene.
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